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|Title: ||Noise-limited scene-change detection in images|
|Author: ||Irie, Kenji|
|Degree: ||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Institution: ||Lincoln University|
|Date: ||2009 |
|Item Type: ||Thesis|
|Abstract: ||This thesis describes the theoretical, experimental, and practical aspects of a noise-limited method for scene-change detection in images. The research is divided into three sections: noise analysis and modelling, dual illumination scene-change modelling, and integration of noise into the scene-change model.
The sources of noise within commercially available digital cameras are described, with a new model for image noise derived for charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. The model is validated experimentally through the development of techniques that allow the individual noise components to be measured from the analysis of output images alone. A generic model for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) cameras is also derived. Methods for the analysis of spatial (inter-pixel) and temporal (intra-pixel) noise are developed. These are used subsequently to investigate the effects of environmental temperature on camera noise. Based on the cameras tested, the results show that the CCD camera noise response to variation in environmental temperature is complex whereas the CMOS camera response simply increases monotonically.
A new concept for scene-change detection is proposed based upon a dual illumination concept where both direct and ambient illumination sources are present in an environment, such as that which occurs in natural outdoor scenes with direct sunlight and ambient skylight. The transition of pixel colour from the combined direct and ambient illuminants to the ambient illuminant only is modelled. A method for shadow-free scene-change is then developed that predicts a pixel's colour when the area in the scene is subjected to ambient illumination only, allowing pixel change to be distinguished as either being due to a cast shadow or due to a genuine change in the scene. Experiments on images captured in controlled lighting demonstrate 91% of scene-change and 83% of cast shadows are correctly determined from analysis of pixel colour change alone.
A statistical method for detecting shadow-free scene-change is developed. This is achieved by bounding the dual illumination model by the confidence interval associated with the pixel's noise. Three benefits arise from the integration of noise into the scene-change detection method:
- The necessity for pre-filtering images for noise is removed;
- All empirical thresholds are removed; and
- Performance is improved.
The noise-limited scene-change detection algorithm correctly classifies 93% of scene-change and 87% of cast shadows from pixel colour change alone. When simple post-analysis size-filtering is applied both these figures increase to 95%.|
|Supervisor: ||McKinnon, Alan E|
Woodhead, Ian M
|Persistent URL (URI): ||http://hdl.handle.net/10182/1351|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral (PhD) Theses|
Department of Applied Computing
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