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|Title: ||Health and performance-related effects of whole body vibration training|
|Author: ||Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset|
|Degree: ||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Institution: ||Lincoln University|
|Date: ||2012 |
|Item Type: ||Thesis|
|Abstract: ||Whole body vibration (WBV) is a relatively new tool used by some practitioners to improve health. Vibration is now widely used in sport science, physiotherapy, and rehabilitation. WBV is applied via a platform which transmits oscillatory movement through the participant’s body. It has been shown that whole body vibration has positive effects on human body systems including the musculoskeletal, neurovascular and endocrine systems. While vibration training stimulates muscle contraction that promotes muscle strength, the evidence for performance benefit is controversial. The effects of WBV are still being uncovered but it is becoming clear that there are a number of areas where WBV may be beneficial. Sport scientists have investigated the effects of WBV on muscle performance, particularly strength and power development, with mixed results. It is also well established that WBV can affect other physiological systems such as the control of blood vessels and the nervous system. Acknowledgement of the beneficial effects on these systems may indicate the use of WBV on patients with disruption to these systems such as diabetics. Improvement in blood perfusion to certain areas via changes in blood vessel diameter resulting from WBV may also prove useful for recovery, and enhanced recovery from strenuous exercise would be beneficial to many sportspeople.
It is the aim of this thesis to indicate clearly the usefulness of WBV for muscular performance benefit. This will be accomplished by a meta-analysis of previous relevant research studies. A second aim is to identify any beneficial changes to the health of type II diabetic patients of WBV training. Finally, the effectiveness of WBV as a means of enhanced recovery from strenuous exercise will be examined in the last study of this thesis.
Chapter 1 introduces WBV and the thesis rationale. In chapter 2, I searched for high quality studies (randomised controlled trials and matched design studies) from Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training from the 14 studies compared to having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardised mean difference of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.56-1.09). The effect of WBV training on squat jump height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (> 30 Hz), higher amplitude (> 3 mm), longer exposure duration ( > 10 min/session), longer training period (>12 weeks) and among non athletes had a greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (≤ 30 Hz), lower amplitude (≤ 3 mm), shorter exposure duration ( ≤ 10 min/session), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks), shorter training period (< 4 weeks) and in athletes. The effect of WBV training compared to a standard exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). This study revealed strong evidence for a beneficial effect of WBV on counter movement jump height.
In chapter 3, I conducted a randomized controlled trial at Srinagarind Hospital Thailand. Type II diabetics (40 patients) were randomized into two groups (WBV and control). The WBV group was given 2 sets of 6 one-minute vibration squats, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Training load increased progressively from an initial vibration frequency of
30 Hz and platform amplitude shift of 2 mm to 40 Hz and 4 mm. I outlined my findings that indicated that WBV training had little effect overall with no significant difference found between groups for fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin level and insulin sensitivity (p > 0.05). However, after the patients were dichotomized into groups representing the severity of their diabetes, those with HbA1c ≥ 8 (severe diabetes, 9 patients in WBV and 8 patients in control), WBV produced a significant reduction in FBS by -20.80 ± 18.99% (mean ± 95%CI, p = 0.012) and insulin sensitivity by 4.67 ± 5.19% (p = 0.043). HbA1c and insulin levels also had positive outcomes but did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, there was no significant difference between WBV and controls for all outcomes in the less severe diabetes group (HbA1c < 8). In chapter 3, changes in vascular and nerve function with vibration training, were examined and I found a possible beneficial decrease in peak systolic velocity by -3.13 ± 12.70% (p = 0.143) in the WBV compared to the control group. However, the WBV group showed unclear effects in nerve conduction velocity, pain and numbness between the two groups.
Finally in chapter 4, I conducted a randomized controlled crossover study at Lincoln University whereby sixteen male athletes performed 6 sets of 30 sec Wingate tests interspersed with 30 sec of active recovery (40W), and then were subsequently randomized into 2 groups: Group 1, active recovery program (consisting of 10 minutes of cycling and stretching), and Group 2, WBV where athletes completed 1 set of stretching (hamstrings, right quadriceps and left quadriceps) at 30 Hz, 1-2 mm amplitude, for 30 sec, and 2 sets of lateral thigh muscle, hamstrings, quadriceps and calve massage at 40 Hz, 4-5 mm amplitude, for 60 sec. I found little difference in blood lactate removal, anaerobic capacity, anaerobic power, fatigue index, 3-sec maximum voluntary contraction force, jump height, sit and reach distance, rate of perceived exertion score, or muscle soreness score between a traditional active recovery program and WBV. A subset of 6 athletes’ tissue oxygen saturation was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during exercise and recovery. The WBV program substantially increased muscle oxygenation 10 min post exercise and post recovery (74.50 ± 1.43, 72.19 ± 2.25% respectively) compared to the traditional active recovery (63.73 ± 3.75, 69.46 ± 1.81%) or no recovery (72.95 ± 2.89, 71.93 ± 2.39%). It seems that the WBV program may increase the oxygen availability to tissue but has little performance benefit immediately after or 60 min later.
In summary WBV training has an effect on a number of systems in the body. It is clear that WBV under particular circumstances (high frequency, high amplitude) has a beneficial effect on the generation of muscle power. We have also provided evidence to indicate that WBV training may be an effective method of controlling some of deleterious outcomes of type II diabetes in the most severe cases only. Finally, vibration training increased muscle oxygenation during recovery and may be useful in restoring oxygen levels to the muscles post exercise training, however we found little evidence to suggest such a recovery technique would benefit subsequent performances completed 1 hour later.|
|Supervisor: ||Hamlin, Mike|
|Persistent URL (URI): ||http://hdl.handle.net/10182/4804|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral (PhD) Theses|
Department of Social Science, Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Sport
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