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dc.contributor.authorGunaratne, N. M.en
dc.contributor.authorFuentes, S.en
dc.contributor.authorGunaratne, T. M.en
dc.contributor.authorTorrico, Damiren
dc.contributor.authorAshman, H.en
dc.contributor.authorFrancis, C.en
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez Viejo, C.en
dc.contributor.authorDunshea, F. R.en
dc.identifier.citationGunaratne et al. (2019). Consumer acceptability, eye fixation, and physiological responses: A study of novel and familiar chocolate packaging designs using eye-tracking devices. Food, 8(7), 253. doi: 10.3390/foods8070253en
dc.description.abstractEye fixations on packaging elements are not necessarily correlated to consumer attention or positive emotions towards those elements. This study aimed to assess links between the emotional responses of consumers and the eye fixations on areas of interest (AOI) of different chocolate packaging designs using eye trackers. Sixty participants were exposed to six novel and six familiar (commercial) chocolate packaging concepts on tablet PC screens. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis were performed on eye tracking, facial expressions, and self-reported responses. The results showed that there were significant positive correlations between liking and familiarity in commercially available concepts (r = 0.88), whereas, with novel concepts, there were no significant correlations. Overall, the total number of fixations on the familiar packaging was positively correlated (r = 0.78) with positive emotions elicited in people using the FaceReader™ (Happy), while they were not correlated with any emotion for the novel packaging. Fixations on a specific AOI were not linked to positive emotions, since, in some cases, they were related to negative emotions elicited in people or not even associated with any emotion. These findings can be used by package designers to better understand the link between the emotional responses of consumers and their eye fixation patterns for specific AOI.en
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - MDPI -
dc.rights© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.en
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.subjectconsumer likingen
dc.titleConsumer acceptability, eye fixation, and physiological responses: A study of novel and familiar chocolate packaging designs using eye-tracking devicesen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Agriculture and Life Sciencesen
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciencesen
dc.subject.anzsrc150501 Consumer-Oriented Product or Service Developmenten
dc.subject.anzsrc1505 Marketingen
dc.subject.anzsrc0908 Food Sciencesen
dc.subject.anzsrc090899 Food Sciences not elsewhere classifieden
pubs.notesArticle number 253 Date of acceptance: 10 Jul 2019en
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences/WFMB

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