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dc.contributor.authorMerfield, Charles N.en
dc.contributor.authorMoller, H.en
dc.contributor.authorManhire, J.en
dc.contributor.authorRosin, Christopheren
dc.contributor.authorNorton, S.en
dc.contributor.authorCarey, P.en
dc.contributor.authorHunt, Lesley M.en
dc.contributor.authorReid, J.en
dc.contributor.authorFairweather, John R.en
dc.contributor.authorBenge, J.en
dc.contributor.authorLe Quellec, I.en
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, H.en
dc.contributor.authorLucock, David L.en
dc.contributor.authorSaunders, Caroline M.en
dc.contributor.authorMacLeod, C.en
dc.contributor.authorBarber, A.en
dc.contributor.authorMcCarthy, A.en
dc.identifier.citationMerfield C, Moller H, Manhire J, Rosin C, Norton S, Carey P, Hunt L, Reid J, Fairweather J, Benge J, Quellec IL, Campbell H, Lucock D, Saunders C, MacLeod C, Barber A, McCarthy A (2015). Are Organic Standards Sufficient to Ensure Sustainable Agriculture? Lessons From New Zealand’s ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard Projects. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 4(3), 158-172. doi:10.5539/sar.v4n3p158en
dc.description.abstractOur review concludes that organic standards need to account for a broader set of criteria in order to retain claims to ‘sustainability’. Measurements of the ecological, economic and social outcomes from over 96 kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy farms in New Zealand between 2004 and 2012 by The Agricultural Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) project showed some enhanced ecosystem services from organic agriculture that will assist a “land-sharing” approach for sustainable land management. However, the efficiency of provisioning services is reduced in organic systems and this potentially undermines a “land-sparing” strategy to secure food security and ecosystem services. Other aspects of the farm operation that are not considered in the organic standards sometimes had just as much or even a greater effect on ecosystem services than restriction of chemical inputs and synthetic fertilisers. An organic farming version of the New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard will integrate organic standards and wider agricultural best practice into a broad and multidimensional sustainability assessment framework and package of learning tools. There is huge variation in performance of farms within a given farming system. Therefore improving ecosystem services depends as much on locally tuned learning and adjustments of farm practice on individual farms as on uptake of organic or Integrated Management farming system protocols.en
dc.publisherCanadian Center of Science and Educationen
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - Canadian Center of Science and Education - -
dc.rightsCopyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
dc.subjectecosystem servicesen
dc.subjectintegrated managementen
dc.subjectorganic farmingen
dc.subjectsustainability indicatorsen
dc.titleAre organic standards sufficient to ensure sustainable agriculture? Lessons from New Zealand's ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard projectsen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitAgribusiness and Economics Research Uniten
lu.contributor.unitApplied Management and Computingen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection and Ecologyen
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Environment, Society and Designen
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Tourism, Sport and Societyen
dc.subject.anzsrc070301 Agro-ecosystem Function and Predictionen
dc.subject.anzsrc070107 Farming Systems Researchen
dc.relation.isPartOfSustainable Agriculture Researchen
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agribusiness & Economics Research Unit
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Environment, Society and Design
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Environment, Society and Design/DTSS
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/2018 PBRF Staff group

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