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dc.contributor.authorDickie, Ianen
dc.contributor.authorSt John, M. G.en
dc.contributor.authorYeates, G. W.en
dc.contributor.authorMorse, C. W.en
dc.contributor.authorBonner, K. I.en
dc.contributor.authorOrwin, K. H.en
dc.contributor.authorPeltzer, D. A.en
dc.identifier.citationDickie et al. (2014). Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown. AoB PLANTS, 6, plu056. doi:10.1093/aobpla/plu056en
dc.description.abstractPlant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO₃⁻N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic below-ground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal.en
dc.publisherOxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Companyen
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company -
dc.rights© The Authors 2014 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectbiogeochemical processesen
dc.subjectbiological invasionsen
dc.subjectecosystem functionen
dc.subjectbacterial ratioen
dc.subjectlegacy effectsen
dc.subjectplant-soil interactionsen
dc.subjectremoval effectsen
dc.subjectfungal : bacterial ratioen
dc.subjectplant–soil interactionsen
dc.titleBelowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdownen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection Research Centreen
dc.subject.anzsrc050102 Ecosystem Functionen
dc.subject.anzsrc050103 Invasive Species Ecologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc0705 Forestry Sciencesen
dc.subject.anzsrc0503 Soil Sciencesen
dc.subject.anzsrc050303 Soil Biologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc070502 Forestry Biomass and Bioproductsen
dc.subject.anzsrc0607 Plant Biologyen
dc.relation.isPartOfAoB PLANTSen
pubs.notesSPECIAL ISSUE: The Role of Below-Ground Processes in Mediating Plant Invasions Article code: plu056 Date of acceptance: 03 Sep 2014en

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