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Integration of molecular and physiological models to explain time of anthesis in wheat

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dc.contributor.author Brown, H. E. en
dc.contributor.author Jamieson, P. D. en
dc.contributor.author Brooking, I. R. en
dc.contributor.author Moot, Derrick J. en
dc.contributor.author Huth, N. I. en
dc.date.accessioned 2017-04-27T02:19:44Z
dc.date.available 2013-11-11 en
dc.date.issued 2013-12 en
dc.date.submitted 2013-08-06 en
dc.identifier.citation Brown, H.E., Jamieson, P.D., Brooking, I.R., Moot, D.J., & Huth, N.I. (2013). Integration of molecular and physiological models to explain time of anthesis in wheat. Annals of Botany, 112(9), 1683-1703. doi:10.1093/aob/mct224 en
dc.identifier.issn 0305-7364 en
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10182/8037
dc.description.abstract Background and Aims - A model to predict anthesis time of a wheat plant from environmental and genetic information requires integration of current concepts in physiological and molecular biology. This paper describes the structure of an integrated model and quantifies its response mechanisms. Methods - Literature was reviewed to formulate the components of the model. Detailed re-analysis of physiological observations are utilized from a previous publication by the second two authors. In this approach measurements of leaf number and leaf and primordia appearance of near isogenic lines of spring and winter wheat grown for different durations in different temperature and photoperiod conditions are used to quantify mechanisms and parameters to predict time of anthesis. Key Results - The model predicts the time of anthesis from the length of sequential phases: 1, embryo development; 2, dormant; 3, imbibed/emerging; 4, vegetative; 5, early reproductive; 6, pseudo-stem extension; and 7, ear development. Phase 4 ends with vernalization saturation (VS), Phase 5 with terminal spikelet (TS) and Phase 6 with flag leaf ligule appearance (FL). The durations of Phases 4 and 5 are linked to the expression of Vrn genes and are calculated in relation to change in Haun stage (HS) to account for the effects of temperature per se. Vrn1 must be expressed to sufficient levels for VS to occur. Vrn1 expression occurs at a base rate of 0·08/HS in winter ‘Batten’ and 0·17/HS in spring ‘Batten’ during Phases 1, 3 and 4. Low temperatures promote expression of Vrn1 and accelerate progress toward VS. Our hypothesis is that a repressor, Vrn4, must first be downregulated for this to occur. Rates of Vrn4 downregulation and Vrn1 upregulation have the same exponential response to temperature, but Vrn4 is quickly upregulated again at high temperatures, meaning short exposure to low temperature has no impact on the time of VS. VS occurs when Vrn1 reaches a relative expression of 0·76 and Vrn3 expression begins. However, Vrn2 represses Vrn3 expression so Vrn1 must be further upregulated to repress Vrn2 and enable Vrn3 expression. As a result, the target for Vrn1 to trigger VS was 0·76 in 8-h photoperiods (Pp) and increased at 0·026/HS under 16-h Pp as levels of Vrn2 increased. This provides a mechanism to model short-day vernalization. Vrn3 is expressed in Phase 5 (following VS), and apparent rates of Vrn3 expression increased from 0·15/HS at 8-h Pp to 0·33/HS at 16-h Pp. The final number of leaves is calculated as a function of the HS at which TS occurred (TSᴴˢ): 2·86 + 1·1 × TSᴴˢ. The duration of Phase 6 is then dependent on the number of leaves left to emerge and how quickly they emerge. Conclusions - The analysis integrates molecular biology and crop physiology concepts into a model framework that links different developmental genes to quantitative predictions of wheat anthesis time in different field situations. en
dc.format.extent 1683-1703 en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Oxford University Press (OUP) on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company en
dc.relation The original publication is available from - Oxford University Press (OUP) on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company - https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct224 en
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct224 en
dc.rights © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ en
dc.subject anthesis en
dc.subject model en
dc.subject phenology en
dc.subject photoperiod en
dc.subject temperature en
dc.subject short-day vernalization en
dc.subject vernalization en
dc.subject Triticum aestivum en
dc.subject Vrn1 en
dc.subject Vrn2 en
dc.subject Vrn3 en
dc.subject Vrn4 en
dc.subject wheat en
dc.subject Plant Biology & Botany en
dc.subject.mesh Triticum en
dc.subject.mesh Flowers en
dc.subject.mesh Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental en
dc.subject.mesh Gene Expression Regulation, Plant en
dc.subject.mesh Genes, Plant en
dc.subject.mesh Models, Biological en
dc.subject.mesh Models, Molecular en
dc.title Integration of molecular and physiological models to explain time of anthesis in wheat en
dc.type Journal Article
lu.contributor.unit Lincoln University en
lu.contributor.unit Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences en
lu.contributor.unit Department of Agricultural Sciences en
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct224 en
dc.subject.anzsrc 060703 Plant Developmental and Reproductive Biology en
dc.subject.anzsrc 060705 Plant Physiology en
dc.subject.anzsrc 0703 Crop and Pasture Production en
dc.subject.anzsrc 060702 Plant Cell and Molecular Biology en
dc.subject.anzsrc 0607 Plant Biology en
dc.subject.anzsrc 0602 Ecology en
dc.relation.isPartOf Annals of Botany en
pubs.issue 9 en
pubs.organisational-group /LU
pubs.organisational-group /LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences
pubs.organisational-group /LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences/AGSC
pubs.publication-status Published en
pubs.volume 112 en
dc.identifier.eissn 1095-8290 en
dc.rights.licence Attribution en


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