AERU Discussion Paper series

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  • PublicationOpen Access
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Invention, Innovation and Commercialisation with special emphasis on Technology Users Innovation (TUI)
    (Lincoln University. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, 2011-06) Fairweather, John R.
    Research work in the AERU has covered the topic of innovation in a number of ways formany years. Recently, we have sharpened our focus on user innovation and reported NewZealand’s first empirical research on this topic in AERU Research Report No. 320. Thisdiscussion paper continues this theme by reporting the papers presented at an internationalconference on user innovation.This discussion paper should appeal to those interested in user innovation. The conferencecovered a wide variety of topics, including theoretical approaches to user innovation,innovation policy and the first-hand experiences of innovators. It also features results from aprogramme of research at Lincoln University on user innovation and draws the results ofthree years of research into a synthesis with policy implications. This discussion paper willtherefore be of particular interest to policymakers wanting to know how best to supportuser innovation in New Zealand. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: Stephen Flowers, User innovation: Theory, Practice, and Policy; Alan Afuah and Marcel Bogers, Why do users innovate? A theory of the locus of innovation; Jim Birkemeier, Full vigour forestry: Sustainable forest management from the forest owner’s point of view; Enrico Tronchin, Disruptive innovation for sustained economic growth: Why New Zealand’s innovation system should be open, distributed and inclusive of innovative users; Bhaskara Rao Suddapalli and Kanimoli Ramaiah, Experience gained from inventing human heart valve prosthesis; MirShahin Seyed Saleh, New cellulosic fibres; Tiffany Rinne, International comparisons of models of innovation models: Whatis to be learned about the New Zealand situation?; Julian Williams, TUI and innovation policies in selected European, Asian and PacificRim countries; G. Daniel Steel, Principles that guide innovation: Predicting the Global InnovationIndex score with dimensions of human values; Keith Alexander, SpringFree Trampoline - and some lessons learned; John Fairweather, Introduction to the New Zealand TUI Research Programme; Ralph Lattimore, Timberworks; Simon Lambert, The socio-technical networks of technology users in New Zealand; Janet Stephenson, Mapping innovators’ networks: Actors and flows in smallinnovation firms; Brett Stanley, The Rollawipa; Tiffany Rinne, Cultural Limits to Innovation in New Zealand; G. Daniel Steel, Comparisons, contrasts, and a case study: Innovation implicationsof New Zealand’s scores in values and personality; Dean Satchell, Novel sawing of eucalypt: a solution leading to a new forestindustry?; John Lay, iAgri; John Fairweather, Tiffany Rinne, Gary Steel, Simon Lambert, Janet Stephenson, Synthesis of New Zealand TUI research and policy implications: Is ittime to support user invention in New Zealand?; Peter Hone, Commercialisation of IP for inventors and SMEs and why so many ideasfail to enter the market; Manthan D. Janodia, N. Udupa, J. Venkata Rao, Virendra S. Ligade, Generating innovations in developing countries: Policy formulation andits implications.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An economic survey of New Zealand wheatgrowers : financial analysis, 1982-83
    (Lincoln University. Agricultural and Economics Research Unit., 1984-10) Lough, R. D.; McCartin, P. J.
    This Report is the sixth in an annual series of economic surveys which concentrate on financial aspects of New Zealand wheatgrowing farms. These surveys have been undertaken by the Agricultural Economics Research Unit at Lincoln College on behalf of the Wheat Growers Sub-Section of Federated Farmers of New Zealand Inc. The principal objective of this survey is to establish, from farm accounts and personal interviews, financial data pertaining to wheatgrowing farms in the 1982-83 financial year. Such data will allow a more comprehensive picture of wheatgrowing in New Zealand, in line with that available for other major New Zealand farming industries. The accounts analysis was carried out by Roger Lough, computer programming by Patrick McCartin, and the report compiled by Roger Lough and Patrick McCartin.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Productivity and income of New Zealand agriculture 1921-67
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1969) Hussey, D. D.; Philpott, B. P.
    This discussion paper updates the data on income and productivity for the New Zealand agricultural sector for the period 1921-1967 in the AERU research report titled: Productivity and income of New Zealand agriculture, 1921-67.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Recent trends in capital formation in New Zealand agriculture 1964-69
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1972) Johnson, R. W. M.; Hadfield, S. M.
    This discussion paper updates the data on gross capital formation in the AERU research report titled: Capital formation in New Zealand agriculture, 1946-67.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    New Zealand, The Ten, and future market strategies
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1972-04) McCarthy, Owen
    Britain, along with Ireland, Denmark and Norway will become a full member or the European Economic Community (EC) in January 1973. Thus the original signatories of the Treaty of Rome of 1957 (France, West Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) which set up the EC will become what is popularly called The Ten. In fact this is a misnomer because a number of countries are associate members of long standing (Greece. Turkey) or entered as a type of associate under the Yaounde Convention (former French colonies in Africa and African nations still members of the British Commonwealth) or are currently negotiating for associate membership (Austria, Sweden, Spain). In passing, it is suggested that it is this unwieldy expansion of the original inward looking Six which offers the best hope for freer world trade to the benefit of New Zealand, among others. The main aims of the 1957 Rome Treaty were to eliminate customs duties and other trade barriers between member states; to establish a common external tariff (CT) and commercial policies towards outsiders; to inaugurate a common agricultural policy (CP) and to encourage the free movement of people among group members. These measures together were to achieve the grand design of improving living standards and encouraging closer political ties. In practice, most progress to date has been made on the customs union or common market. At the end of a 12 year transition period (1957-1969) all trade barriers between the individual countries within the group had been eliminated. Political union is more contentious and little effort is being made in this area at present. The implications of a group of Ten, plus minions are profound. Already the Six alone are the largest trading bloc in the world in terms of both imports and exports. For example, of total world imports of food and agricultural raw materials, the Six account for 25 per cent. The Ten would be even more important traders with a population in Western Europe alone of 255 million compared with Russia 240 million and U.S.A. 201 million. It might be thought that as 10-15 per cent of New Zealand exports go profitably to the Six already, the application of the CT and the CP to Britain should not affect New Zealand unduly. Unfortunately this is not true. Current exports to the Six are mostly wool which enters duty free as an industrial raw material. Our other major products, meat and dairy, will be greatly affected by the existing and proposed CT and CP relations (in spite of temporary concessions for our dairy produce). Briefly the crux of New Zealand's problem revolves around the degree to which Britain will become self sufficient after EC entry by increases in her internal production plus other EC country transfers and the changed patterns of demand EC entry will force on the U.K. consumer. Higher prices to U.K. producers under CP will increase output. However, higher prices will also be paid by U.K. consumers under CP so that existing patterns of demand are likely to change. The question of where New Zealand could, or will be forced to fit into this entirely new set of circumstances, or how she could beset adjust to it is discussed further below.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1974-06) Ross, B. J.
    Productivity may be defined in a number of different ways, and the best definition to use at any particular time will depend upon the use intended for the measure productivity. Price changes and the difficulty of adding together the volumes of different types of inputs or outputs present problems in the calculation of all but the simplest types of productivity measures. The more complex or all-embracing a particular measure is, the greater the computational problems are likely to be, giving a greater scope for error. When account is also taken of the extra labour involved in their calculation, it may well be that for many purposes the aggregate measures of productivity arc not worth computing, although superior in concept. Increases in productivity can help to slow down the rate of inflation, and speed up the growth in real incomes, but productivity change is only one of the influences affecting these aspects of our economic life, and in a complex, interdependent, modern world, the beneficial effects of productivity growth may be hard to pinpoint, especially for individual groups within society. Problems of definition, measurement and distribution of the benefits aside, relatively high levels of productivity are the foundation of our high standard of living. Growth of productivity provides the key to a better way of life in both rich and poor nations, and the more efficient use of all resources which is implied with increased productivity is an attractive bonus to a world becoming increasingly conscious of the limited supply of some resources. It has been one of the aims of this paper to bring home the point that productivity should not be presented as a cure-all of all economic ailments, since the failure to achieve the claimed benefits may lead to its disenchantment of the whole idea of working towards a more productive society. Such doubts must not be allowed to hinder efforts to increase productivity. Despite the influence of other factors, productivity growth must always be seen as a major way of achieving progress towards some of the most important goals of all societies.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The wool acquisition controversy
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1974-03) McCarthy, Owen
    The most controversial topic in the wool industry over the last 5-10 years has been marketing reform, in particular the question of wool acquisition. Briefly, acquisition means the setting up by legislation of an authority to acquire compulsorily and market all New Zealand wool. Although there are many interpretations of precisely what functions the authority would undertake, the key proposal is that it assumes ownership of the wool at an early stage in the marketing process. Similar marketing reform schemes for wool have been under scrutiny in South Africa and Australia. However, in both these countries the agony seems over and action has been approved by the majority of those involved in the industry. This paper is mainly concerned with outlining the cases for and against acquisition. The first section provides background on the structure and organization of the wool industry in New Zealand and traces the recent progress of wool marketing and reform. The second section briefly describes the world textile market of which wool forms a relatively small part, examines the competitive position of wool in this market and outlines an ideal marketing system for wool within such a context. The third section describes and comments on various wool market reform proposals and puts the case for non-acquisition, that is, the status quo, with minor variations.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The development of rational policies for agricultural trade between New Zealand and Japan: proceedings of a seminar sponsored by the Japan Advisory Committee, held at Wellington on 12 December 1978
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1979-06) Agricultural Economics Research Unit
    This discussion paper covers the development of rational polices for agricultural trade between New Zealand and Japan. The paper includes the full text of the following papers: J. G. Pryde, Trends in Agricultural Protectionism Worldwide and New Zealand Initiatives in Overcoming the Problem; G. W. Kitson, Japanese Agricultural Policy – Objectives and Directions; Dr Y. Yuize, Japanese Agriculture; E. A. Saxon, Dairying in Japan; Japanese Agricultural Support Policies and Trade in Livestock Products Between New Zealand and Japan – K. C. Durrant, An Introduction; H. S. Blackmore, Dairy Products; M. W. Calder, Meat Products.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Energy use in New Zealand agricultural production
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1983-03) Chudleigh, P. D.; Greer, Glen
    This paper reports estimates of the energy used in New Zealand agricultural production up to the farm gate during the decade 1972-1981. As well as a description of total energy usage, the paper shows how the most important energy intensive inputs, fuel and fertiliser, have varied in use over the period. Analysis of aggregate fuel use data suggests that New Zealand farmers have not decreased fuel use over the period in response to increasing real fuel prices. The most likely explanation for this lies in the facts that fuel costs still constitute only a minor part of total farm costs; and fuel is not easily substituted for by other inputs. On the other hand, fertiliser costs are responsible for a substantial proportion of total farm costs. Even so, fertiliser price is not the most important factor influencing fertiliser input levels. Farm Income appears the most important single factor influencing the varying level of fertiliser inputs from year to year. Higher energy prices on the farm have been only one factor influencing New Zealand aggregate agricultural output over the past decade. The implications of higher energy prices for agriculture emanate from far wider sources than just farm production technologies and direct effects on farm production economies. The success of conservation measures on changes in output or input mixes on New Zealand farms stemming from the higher energy prices have so far been mainly hypothetical or have not surfaced in available data. The lack of published data at the subsectoral level does not allow meaningful monitoring of changes that-may be taking place. Also, disaggregation of data on energy use is important if interest is in estimating future energy inputs and how these may be affected by various agricultural policies.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Reaganomics and the New Zealand agricultural sector
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1983-01) Bohall, Robert W.
    The U.S.A. is an important force in world economic activity and agricultural trade. Developments in the United States impact on New Zealand farmers on both the demand and supply side. The net effect of Reaganomics depends to what degree world agricultural demand is stimulated through U.S. macroeconomic policy versus being offset through increased commodity supplies and competition for export markets from specific support for the US agricultural sector. This paper initially reviews Reaganomics and the current macroeconomics and agricultural environment in the United States. It is generally a truism that U.S. policy, as with most governments, is developed with domestic priorities taking precedence. The implications are that while international relationships are very important and there are strong ties between the U.S.A. and New Zealand, it is the political and social pressures within the U.S.A. that predominate in the development of national macroeconomic policy and agricultural legislation. It is later argued that: (i) U.S. agricultural policy and U.S. macroeconomic policy may be of about equal importance in terms of direct implications for New Zealand farmers; (ii) the fundamentals of commodity markets are still the primary factors influencing grower returns and profits for farmers in both New Zealand and the U.S.A.; (iii) less support in real terms is provided under most U.S. agricultural programs than was the case five years ago; (iv) there is the strong possibility that protectionism and predatory export policies may increase in the U.S. and around the world; and (v) the U.S. is heading toward economic recovery.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Christchurch tomorrow : a discussion of the future development of Christchurch as a regional centre
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1975-09) Wood, J. W.
    This discussion is about the goals and aspirations that the citizenry of Christchurch should adopt in planning the future development of their city. It leaves aside any consideration of the likely success or failure in achieving these objectives and concentrates rather on what the objectives should be with regard especially to the city as a regional centre. The discussion is developed by first considering three topics that largely provide the framework within which the future of Christchurch will inevitably be decided. These topics are: 1. The dimensions of the region dominated by Christchurch. 2. The recent changes within the Christchurch region. 3. The general form that regional policy should take in New Zealand. These discussions provide the necessary background to considering the final topic: 4. The objectives that Christchurch should strive for both for itself and its surrounding region.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Papers presented at the New Zealand Branch, Australian Agricultural Economics Society sixteenth annual conference, Lincoln University, August 1991
    (Lincoln University. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit., 1991-08) Agribusiness
    The themes for the 1991 Conference of the New Zealand Branch of the Australian Agricultural Economics Society were Agricultural Outlook, Economics and Policy, Farm Management, and Marketing and Business. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: R M Davison, Situation and Outlook for Meat; Adrian Orr, The Outlook for the New Zealand Dairy Industry; Mark Horsnell, Commentary; John Pryde, Agriculture in the GATT Round; Ron Sheppard and Lorna Urquhart, World Dairy Prices and New Zealand Farmer Returns; Richard Wallace and Patrick Conway, Situation and Outlook for Wool; Brian Easton, The Treatment of New Zealand In ASE Models of the World Food System; Kris Ericksen, A New Approach to Possum Control; Grant Fleming, Government and Private Sector Mortgage Relief in New Zealand 1931-1935: Economists' participation in Agricultural Finance Policy Making; R N Forbes, Application of Subjective Methods for the Determination of Risks Involved with Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak; Gerald A G Frengley And Warren E Johnston, Farm and Household Financial Stress; Gill Growse, Dairy Herd Testing Some Possible Implications of Introducing Competition; R W M Johnson, Risk Efficiency, Producer Boards, and Treasury Paradigms; S D Morriss, Government Adverse Events Relief Assistance 1986-1991: Impact of Adjustment; Prakash Narayan, The Primary Sector's Contribution To The New Zealand Economy; Chris Nixon, New Zealand / Korean Casein Trade; Ann Pomeroy, Rural Community Development; Dean Riley and Frank Scrimgeour, The Social Value Of An Indigenous Forest; Rodney L St Hill, Financial Market Dualism and Economic Development; Grant M Scobie and John K Gibson, The Cost to Agriculture of Protection to Manufacturing: Theory and Evidence; Jim Sinner, Making Water Quality Decisions: When Costs and Benefits Don't Fit Our Assumptions; S SriRamaratnam and Prakash Narayan, Economy Wide Implications of Pastoral Sector Supply Responses to Future Market Scenarios; Mark Storey and S SriRamaratnam, The New Zealand Live Sheep Trade in The 1990s; Jeffrey A Weber and Richard J Lynch, Allocating Water in the Ashburton River: Irrigation Vs Instream Flows; A C Bywater, Farm Management Research in the 1990s; Gag Frengley, G A Anderson and B D Ward, Financial Leverage and Farmland Price; K Green, H Jagger, C Kearney and P Burborough, Background Study to Downland North Otago; S R Harris, S K Martin, C G Lamb and S F Pittaway, Farmer Risk Perceptions and Management Responses to Risk in A New Zealand Dryland Farming System: An Exploratory Study; Prakash Narayan and Robin Johnson, Diversifiable and Non-Diversifiable Risk in Farming; Derek L Newman, Lindsay S Saunders, Stewart F Pittaway and Greg A Anderson, Multidiscriminant Analysis of Farmers' Risk Responses; L S Saunders, D L Newman, S F Pittaway and G A Anderson, Farmers Perceptions of Risk: Naive or Irrational?; L S Saunders and R J Townsley, A Methodology to Customise Technology Transfer; Frank Scrimgeour ; The Economic Performance of Sharemilkers 1970-1990; Peter Seed and Greg Anderson, Evaluating the Rural Bank Debt Discounting Policy - An Application of Option Pricing Theory; Brian A Bell, The Application of the Capital Asset Pricing Model in New Zealand Agribusiness; Wayne Cartwright, International Competitiveness of Land-Based Industries: Approaches to Research; Sharon Cottrell and Victor Walker, Agricultural Marketing Policy - Recent Developments in Producer Board Legislation; R J Diprose, New Zealand Poultry Meat Industry : A review - August 1991; Chris Nixon, Embryology: A Progess Report; Peter Seed and Greg Anderson; Petrus Simons, Uncertainty: Concept Dimensions and Management.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Marketing boards and anti-trust policy
    (Lincoln University. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, 1990-03) McCann, E.; Lattimore, Ralph G.
    This Discussion Paper presents some views on the relationship between the Acts under which the producer boards operate and the Commerce Act, 1986. In particular, the discussion reviews the interpretation of the powers contained in the Apple and Pear Marketing Act, 1948 in conjunction with the Commerce Act, 1986. While the Apple and Pear Marketing Act provides for monopoly power to be held by the New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board, the Commerce Act provides for the promotion of “competition in markets in New Zealand” (Cooke, 1989). This apparent conflict has been addressed in a recent court action involving the New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board and Apple Fields Ltd. This Discussion Paper presents an economic perspective of the case and its outcome and raises a number of questions which should be addressed. In particular, the ruling provides for the Apple and Pear Marketing Act to take priority over the more recent Commerce Act. Was this Parliament's intention? This case also raised the question of the appropriate representation for people and organisations involved in particular industries. While the democratic system entitles each participant to one vote, should there be some form of weighting where the participants are far from equal in their involvement in the industry, for example, should the 10 hectare apple producer have the same voting power as a 10,000 hectare producer? A further question of importance is the relationship between existing industry participants and new entrants. While freedom of entry and exit is a basic economic principle necessary for maximisation of returns, there appear to be grounds for justifying some constraints on new entrants. However, such constraints would be unnecessary were a free market to operate in terms of grower rights associated with access to export channels. Such issues are raised in this Discussion Paper. Further examination and review of these points is clearly necessary.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Economic aspects of stone fruit marketing in New Zealand
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1972) Smith, A. W.
    New Zealand stone fruit constitutes a multi-million dollar industry. Possibly because the industry exports very little in either value or quantity terms little research work has been completed in this industry. Little is known, quantitatively, about the market forces which operate within the industry. This study is an attempt to measure the forces operating within the New Zealand market for stone fruit. So little is documented of the industry that it is highly desirable that chapter one of this study examines the broad outline of the sales methods available, where the product is produced and the distribution and sale post wholesale. Chapter two then examines in detail the quantities of apricots sold through the channels available. This basic data was obtained by questionnaire and provides also a fuller insight into grower reasons for supplying their present quantities of fruit to each outlet. Chapter three is devoted to the development of economic theory so that a demand study for stone fruit can be undertaken. This basic framework is employed in chapters four and five where annual and daily marketing is considered. In chapter four an attempt will be made to predict the annual industry price and using this as a basis, future projections will be made. In chapter five an attempt will be made to predict daily price. If daily price can be predicted, then growers should be able to develop successful marketing strategies. Chapter six considers these marketing strategies and how they can affect the price for his whole crop in any year at auction. Chapter seven describes the auction system as it is at present and considers some aspects of its operation. Chapter eight considers the method of sale which is commonly considered by many present members of the industry to pose a threat to the livelihood of small growers and present wholesaling firms alike. The chapter then considers the improving of the present wholesaling system and concludes with a review of what the work has achieved, making suggestions for further work. My original brief on this study required me to study ring buying. Ring buying is the practice of one man buying and then splitting his purchase among other buyers. Therefore all group buyers, and commission buyers and the auctioneer practice which continues today of auctioning the line once and then selling to numbers of buyers (some of whom are group buyers) at the same price is ring buying. An analysis of buying power is presented in Table 7.1.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The structure of wool and wool textile production, trade and consumption 1958-69
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1970) Philpott, B. P.; Scott, W. G.
    In this paper we have set out, in the form of charts and tables, the results of an attempt to measure the disposition of wool produced by the major producing and consuming countries in the post-war period. Our aim is to present a picture of the structure of the world wool market, by tracing through the major flows of wool from the point of raw production to its final use in the form of wool type textiles measured in clean fibre content, and to identify the growing points of world demand for wool. The paper is mainly descriptive and no attempt is made at analysis, though the data presented was assembled in the course of an analysis of factors affecting wool prices. In such an analysis we would be concerned, as with the analysis of prices of other agricultural products, with the interaction of supply and demand. But unlike other New Zealand export products, for example meat, in which we confine our attention to one particular type of meat in a few particular countries, we focus on wool because of the infinite possibilities of substitution possible between different grades and types. And we have to take as our market the world as a whole, since nearly every country in the world consumes wool in greater or smaller quantities, if only in the form of small quantities of imported wool textiles.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The economic evaluation of investment in large-scale projects: an essay to recommend procedures
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1968-04) Jensen, R. C.
    The recommendations in this essay refer to the evaluation of large-scale projects - defined for our purposes as projects initiated above the level of the firm; from irrigation projects to reservoirs. The wide range of projects which possibly fit into this category means that detail is impossible in a paper of this nature. The essay considers primarily evaluation procedures in the New Zealand agricultural scene, and is limited to established discounted flow techniques. A working knowledge of these techniques is assumed. The following topics are dealt with: 1. Objective of the Investigation, 2. Scope of the Project, 3. Viewpoint, 4. Terminology, 5.Representation of Benefits & Costs, 6. Period of Analysis, 7. Discount Rate, 8. Index of Overseas Exchange, 9. Output Prices, 10. Sensitivity Analysis, 11. Double-counting, 12 Presentation of Results, 13. Expected Values, 14. Re-appraisal, 15. Investment & Financing, 16. Policy Conclusions.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Demand prospects for beef
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1970) Philpott, B. P.
    In this paper the overall world demand projections for 1975 for beef, prepared by the OECD, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, are presented and discussed. Recent beef production and consumption trends are compared with the projections, the optimum of which, in the light of this comparison, needs to be interpreted with great caution. A specific export projection for New Zealand indicates however that an increased export of 100, 000 tons of beef could be achieved over the next decade at reasonable prices.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The future profitability of beef production in New Zealand
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1970) Johnson, R. W. M.
    In this paper, the meaning of profitability in the context of future production is defined, and then some present and future profitability levels are calculated for various North Island farm systems. These farm systems are then examined together in a linear programming framework to assess likely future trends in beef production in the North Island and throughout New Zealand.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Economic evaluation of water resources development
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1968-04) Jensen, R. C.
    An impressive array of literature dealing with water resources development is accumulating in the bookshelves of both economists and engineers. This literature stresses the essential interdisciplinary teamwork involved in the study of water resources - teamwork involving primarily the economist and the engineer, with recourse to the advice of the geologist, soil scientist, plant scientist and other professions. In this paper I have outlined the theoretical basis for resource allocation and how it is probably impossible to ensure that real situations conform even approximately to this optimum. The techniques accepted as useful in the economic evaluation of water resources development have been discussed. Some institutional factors in New Zealand which may distort the desirable allocation of public money have been mentioned. The various professions concerned in water resources development have come of age and should be given the opportunity of devoting some of their energies to a modern approach to this vital question.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An illustrative example of evaluation procedures (Drainage scheme -- North Canterbury)
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1968-06) Norton, A. C.; Jensen, R. C.
    The objective of the project is to provide information on an accept-reject decision on the Osborne’s Drain Improvement Scheme. The scope of the project is to prevent flooding and to improve the efficiency of drainage, so that the area can be developed to its full potential as high producing land. The accompanying plan shows the boundaries of the area and the location of the work, proposed in the scheme. All properties within the scheme will have a direct outfall into an improve channel which will be maintained in the future as a public drain in a classified rating district.