Lincoln University Wildlife Management Report series

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  • PublicationOpen Access
    Mt Grand Station – Wildlife Conservation
    (Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2023-10) Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Michael; Maxwell, Thomas; Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Michael; Maxwell, Thomas
    This document is a collection of reports from students of ECOL609 Conservation Biology (Semester 1, 2023). The aim of this course is to investigate the challenges and future options for nature conservation management within the agricultural and policy framework and the landscape mosaic of the New Zealand High Country. The focus of the course this year was a case study of the Lincoln University’s High Country Station in Hawea, Central Otago. A 4-day residential field course was attended by more than 30 students with the support of five academic staff from the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the Farm Manager. This paper typically attracts students from several different disciplines and postgraduate study programmes, mostly Masters programmes. Overseas students accounted for a large proportion of the group, particularly from our Master of International Nature Conservation (MINC) joint programme with University of Gottingen in Germany, together with a good number of New Zealand students from various postgraduate study programmes including MINC. Overseas visitors were from a diverse range of countries including USA, Sweden and Kazakhstan. Each student identified and developed their own research project that formed the practical component of the course. Although these were individual research projects, much value was placed on broader learning, sharing of knowledge, discussion, debate and teamwork. The breadth of research topics reflects the varied interests of the students, but all projects have a primary focus on some aspect of Conservation Biology at Mt Grand. These reports provide an original and unique contribution to knowledge of the agroecology of this beautiful landscape and, in our view, fully justify their collation.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Establishment of restoration monitoring at Tārerekautuku Yarrs Lagoon: Conservation Biology (ECOL609) project reports
    (Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2022-11) Bowie, Michael; Gillette, J; Ross, James; Paterson, Adrian; Bowie, Michael; Gillette, J; Ross, James; Paterson, Adrian
    Ninety percent of New Zealand’s wetlands have been lost along with the endemic plants, fish, birds, and invertebrates. Those that remain are threatened by choking weeds, suffocating sediment, pollution from livestock and continued drainage and clearance (Hansford, 2010). Therefore, all remaining wetlands, regardless of their ecological state, are precious and need to be restored and managed to maximise the biodiversity within. Tārerekautuku Yarrs Lagoon is a 76.9 ha reserve located along the Ararira/LII River between Lincoln and Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere. Tārerekautuku is administered by the Selwyn District Council (SDC) who have recognised the wetland’s intrinsic value. The lagoon area was known as a significant mahinga kai (food gathering) site for Ngāi Tahu, and particularly the local hapū of Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki based at Taumutu. Mahinga kai species being gathered at this site include tuna (eel), koareare (the edible rhizome of raupō/bullrush), koukoupara (bullies), mawehe (kōaro), pārera (grey duck), pūtakitaki (paradise duck), pākura (pukeko), whio (blue duck), kaaha (shag) and aruhe (bracken fern root) (Taiaroa 1880). The cultural and biodiversity values of Tārerekautuku are significant and ecological restoration of the lagoon has a huge potential to enhance these (Boffa Miskell, 2017). Selwyn District Council, with the support of the Department of Conservation (mainly Robin Smith), received approximately $800,000 from Ministry for the Environment ‘Freshwater Improvement Fund’ towards achieving five objectives: 1. To control willows and other weeds across approximately 87 ha in the Tārerekautuku Yarrs Lagoon Wetland. 2. To undertake predator control within the wetland and surrounding catchment to target mustelids, rats, and possums 3. To reduce sediment loads through instream works (up to five sediment traps or equivalent) and waterways re-battering work (approximately 2,000 m), including installing two bridges for site access. 4. To plant at least 12,516 native plants and trees across eight ha of Tārerekautuku wetland and connecting waterways. 5. To establish a monitoring programme at the Tārerekautuku wetland for Mātauranga Māori to measure ecological change over time. With Lincoln University’s proximity and MOU (pending) between them and SDC, this project provides a win-win scenario for students to help monitor ecological changes over time (objective 5). The project summaries that follow are an integral part of the ECOL609 (Conservation Biology) course that is undertaken in the first semester of 2022 where students chose a conservation area to monitor. Vegetation quadrat monitoring intended to replicate Stammer (2010); however, access to the site was deemed unsafe to proceed. This work has been added as an Appendix in this report to allow future comparisons.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) in relation to its use in New Zealand revisited: A 2021 review
    (Lincoln University - Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2021-06) Ross, James; Eason, Charles
    Traps, poisons and hunting are pest control tools used internationally for crop protection and to restore ecosystems, particularly on islands and continents where introduced mammals endanger native species. Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) is a vertebrate pesticide, initially developed in the 1940s, principally used to control unwanted introduced mammals in New Zealand and Australia. During the last ten years, there have been over 260 new research and review publications, specifically on 1080 in scientific journals. These publications supplement a body of scientific information regarding mode of action, natural occurrence, toxicology, including poisoning incidents and antidotes, metabolism and fate in the environment and risk to non-target species. Multi-year studies now go beyond immediate non-target impacts and explore ecosystem-level outcomes, including population-level changes for multiple native bird species following the sustained removal of predators. Numerous review publications on community attitudes to pest control and the merits of different tools and techniques have been stimulated, in part by the Predator Free NZ 2050 campaign, and these are summarised. Many sectors of our communities would prefer not to use poisons for pest control, particularly if applied aerially. If 1080 is to continue to be used in New Zealand, research still needs to focus on additional improvements in target specificity, particularly concerning the interactions of kea and game species with bait, and address any new questions raised by regulatory agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; formally ERMA), communities, and iwi. Additionally, there is a need to innovate how different pest control tools are used and advance close-to-market tools with the highest public acceptance, such as species-specific poisons and more targeted bait delivery or trapping systems. Community engagement should continue to be open and transparent, highlight risks and benefits, and seek consensus. In most cases, consensus will involve an integrated approach to pest control using acceptable levels of both aerial and ground-based tools. Greater acceptance of any pest control tool occurs when use is discussed within the context of long-term goals for saving endangered species and ecosystem recovery, with communities that treasure the restoration of their landscapes. However, values are changing, such that no (or minimal) pesticide use is a theme that is increasingly mainstream. In this changing environment, strategies that rely on 1080 or other toxins as one-off treatments for eradicating pests or disease versus continued application for maintenance control are likely to be more and more important.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Conservation biology project reports of Cleardale Station and Taniwha Farm, Rakaia Gorge, Canterbury, New Zealand
    (Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2020-09) Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Michael H.; Dickinson, Nicholas; Bowie, Michael H.
    In each of the previous four years, ECOL609 (Conservation Biology) has been focussed on the South Island High Country, with a residential field course at Lincoln University’s Mt. Grand Station at Hawea. Students have spent the first 3-4 weeks of this paper beginning to understand the ecology, farming systems and the many associated complexities of the South Island High Country, whilst also planning a research project at Mt Grand within their own particular area of specialism.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Feasibility study towards restoring missing fauna of Ōtamahua/Quail Island, with a focus on invertebrates
    (Lincoln University. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2019-08) Visser, S.; Bowie, Michael H.; Ross, J.
    Quail Island/Ōtamahua (85 ha.) located in the Lyttelton Harbour, Banks Peninsula, Canterbury is undergoing ecological restoration. Approximately 100,000 native trees have been planted and all mammalian pests (hedgehogs, rats, cats, rabbits, stoats) apart from mice have been eradicated. The Banks Peninsula tree weta (Hemideina ricta), Leaf vein slug (Pseudaneitea ‘maculata’) and ground beetle Megadromus guerinii have been successfully translocated to the island and have established sustainable populations in the presence of mice. However many flightless invertebrate species are absent from the island compared to similar habitat in the harbour basin and require human assistance to establish. Objectives of this study was to determine the suitability of reptile, bird and invertebrate candidate species for reintroduction to Quail Island, with more detailed information on the sources and methodology for translocation and monitoring for the invertebrate species. No one obvious bird species stands out as being easy to reintroduce to the island. Two species of local lizards could be reintroduced to the island, but it is unknown if the presence of mice is an impediment to their success. A small predator exclusion fence may be an option. Reasonable populations of all candidate carabids and spider species were found apart from Nuisiana arboris. Five ground beetles (Carabidae), five spiders (Arachnida), four aphids (Aphididae), the reticulate stag beetle, a darkling beetle (Tenebrionidae) and a weevil (Curculionidae) species are considered best as candidate species for reintroduction.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Aerial survey of red deer following a pest control operation on Molesworth Station in 2017
    (Lincoln University. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2019-05) McBrearty, Kaylyn
    In October 2017, Operation Solutions for Primary Industry (OSPRI) conducted an aerial 1080 baiting operation targeting possums over 59,594 ha (595.94 km²) of Molesworth Station. An aerial helicopter-based survey of red deer (live and dead) was conducted soon after by the Marlborough Branch of the New Zealand Deerstalkers Association. Advice on survey design was provided by New Zealand ecologists employed at Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research and Cameron Speedy Director of Wildlife Management Associates Ltd, Turangi.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    How does ecological restoration influence invertebrate composition on Quail Island?
    (Lincoln University. Department of Pest Management & Conservation, 2018-03) Takada, A.; Bowie, Michael H.
    Ecological restoration in New Zealand has an emphasis on the islands due to its feasibility of mammal control. As a refuge of local, rare and endangered species, ecological restoration has been undertaken on Quail Island for 19 years from 1998. To evaluate the response in biodiversity, the invertebrate community was used as a bio-indicator to assess the restoration success. In this study, we examined the change in the terrestrial invertebrate community by pitfall traps across five different habitats including exotic grassland, restoration plantings of two ages, mixed shrubland, and pine and macrocarpa woodland. Species diversity was tested by Shannon index, Simpson’s index, beetle richness and mite richness. We used the general linear model to examine the change in time and identify the influence of environmental variables. Species-level association with habitat structure was tested by pairwise comparison. We saw an apparent increase in Shannon index, Simpson’s index and beetle richness, while mite richness fluctuated. Habitat differences illustrated the species preference for habitat structure. Restoration trajectories indicated a promising recovery of the invertebrate community, especially for cave weta (Pleioplectron simplex) and ground weta (Hemiandrus n. sp.). The catch of Megadromus guerinii, the first Bank Peninsula endemic found on Quail Island, showed its potential to be the suitable habitat for local species. The analysis of the species abundance with the environmental factors indicated their requirement of physical characteristics. The comprehensive results of 19 years restoration revealed the current state of biodiversity that contribute to the future restoration plan. Although the nature of long-term monitoring and methodologies used raised several uncertainties and concerns of the results, continuous monitoring is recommended to ensure the succession of the ecological community is under control to reach the final goal.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Restoration research: Punakaiki Coastal Restoration Project: 2014-2016
    (Lincoln University, 2018) Esperschuetz, Juergen; Bowie, Michael; Smith, Carol; Abbott, Michael; Dickinson, Nicholas
    After the first phase of restoration activities in the PCRP (2008-2013), an ongoing partnership agreement was arranged between Rio Tinto, Department of Conservation (DOC), Conservation Volunteers New Zealand (CVNZ) and Lincoln University, to cover the period 2014-2016. The partnering vision was updated to reflect and build on the progress made during the initial PCRP term: “The Punakaiki Coastal Restoration Project (PCRP) aims to restore the sand plain forest on the Te Ara Taiko Nature Reserve, land previously used for grazing and mining on the Northern Barrytown flats, that spans the mountains to sea. This will protect and enhance the unique ecological values of the Punakaiki area, which include the only nesting ground of the Westland Black Petrel, natural habitat of the Blue Penguin and the remnant sand plain forests bearing Nikau Palms and Rata trees many hundreds of years old." (Agreement to extend the Westland Petrel partnering agreement (Simpson Grierson, 19/12/13). Key partnership objectives were identified, which included the shared objective to ensure a sustainable future for the Te Ara Taiko nature reserve and adjacent conservation lands, which reflected the partners shared commitment to a collaborative approach to ecological restoration, and a belief in the value of research, innovation, education and community engagement. A continuation of the assisted restoration process towards a functioning sand-plain [or wetland] ecosystem involved the planting of over 150,000 eco-sourced trees, shrubs and flaxes has in effect, established the foundations of this change. Further work over the last three years (2014-2016) has built on this by enhancing diversity and protecting the first five years’ investment. These objectives were to protect and enhance the existing restored areas, so further developing the knowledge base on the site in order to improve and increase the collective science of nature conservation and restoration in NZ and globally, as well as providing interpretive and educational resources to foster knowledge [and engagement] in and around species protection and restoration. More specifically, the new partnership agreement aimed to develop “internal” and alternate funding towards project self-sufficiency. The PCRP is planned to become an integral part of the Punakaiki visitor experience through the development of high quality visitor experiences, and provide a world class model of a collaborative approach to nature conservation. The restoration work over the three-year period included specific tasks to enhance the existing plantings through under-planting to increase species diversity and to enhance connectivity of remnants; contain the spread of gorse and blackberry, and to develop the nursery capacity to a point of project self-sufficiency. A project implementation plan has been prepared, aiming to demonstrate conservation leadership through partnerships. Conservation at the PCRP should develop economic and business opportunities, and demonstrate enduring value for New Zealand citizens. Research and monitoring will be carried out around biodiversity and offsets to build up global knowledge about sustainability. Research findings during the three-year period provide a “living lab” for the development of research skills, to increase opportunities to educate citizens about biodiversity and species protection. Future plans for the PCRP aim to create a positive experience for volunteers, visitors and stakeholders in order to increase numbers of people involved in conservation by providing hands-on experience for development of restoration-based skills. In turn, this will provide an evidence base for expert volunteer recruitment and management, and develop a flagship partnership showing innovation and expertise. This report, which documents research and monitoring activity and findings from 2014-2016, provides an update to Hahner and Bowie (2013).
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Purple Peaks Curry Reserve pest animal management plan
    (Centre for Wildlife Management and Conservation, Lincoln Univesity, 2017-11-01) McFarlane, Lynette M.; Ross, J. G.
    The purpose of this report is to create a pest animal management plan for Purple Peaks Curry Reserve. The work was commissioned by NZ Native Forest Restoration Trust in June 2017, and the plan was written by Lyne McFarlane and Dr James Ross of Lincoln University.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The birds and the bees: Identification of bird and invertebrate fauna providing ecosystem services following restoration plantings at the Lincoln University Dairy Farm
    (Lincoln University. Department of Ecology, 2017-03) Curtis, K.; Bowie, Michael H.; Ross, J.
    This study monitored the birds and invertebrates in the native corner plantings, native corridors, and the pasture at Lincoln University Demonstration Dairy and compared their diversity and abundance in three habitat types. A baseline study was previously completed in 2008/2009 and had assessed the presence of birds in the pasture just after the native planting. In late November and early December 2016 five-minute bird counts were completed in 20 pasture sites and the four native corner plantings. A range of entomological monitoring techniques were used in each site including pan traps, pitfall traps, wooden discs, and leaf litter extraction. A total of 22 bird species were found, 11 native and 11 exotic species. There were three more bird species observed in 2016 compared to the 2008 study. A total of 74 invertebrate species were found. Native plantings had the highest abundance and richness of invertebrates followed by the corridors, then the pasture. A range of ecosystem services are provided by the birds and invertebrates that include predation and pollination. The plantings also provide shelter for stock, greater on-farm native plant diversity and enhance aesthetic appeal.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Detecting the presence of long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) and morepork (Ninox novaseelandiae) on Banks Peninsula
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2017-03) Hadden, Karina; Bowie, Michael H.; Pryde, M.
    The overall aim of this project was to detect the location of long-tailed bat and morepork across Banks Peninsula with the intention of protecting habitat and increasing survival rate. The aim is also to provide advocacy for both species, and promote their conservation with private landowners. The findings of this study will be able to complement future research studies of both long-tailed bats and morepork on Banks Peninsula and throughout New Zealand. This study had two objectives: 1. To determine the presence of long-tailed bats on Banks Peninsula. 2. To add to the current knowledge of morepork distribution on Banks Peninsula.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Mapping restoration plantings in Selwyn: the stepping stones of a wildlife corridor
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2017-04) Greer, P.; Bowie, Michael H.; Doscher, Crile
    Canterbury plains currently has less than 1% of the original native vegetation due to human settlement and farming. Selwyn as one of Canterbury’s districts has experienced an increase in intensified farming in the last 20 years. The changes in farming practices has increased the loss of vegetation, with changes in water use and quality. Through the use of native vegetation as shelter belts, riparian and corner plantings they have become part of the stepping stones concept. Farm plantings are part of the answer, other plantings such as road margins, river banks, public parks and private (non-farming) gardens also provide biodiversity support. The range of plantings provide recreational and learning areas for schools and the public. These areas include parks, schools through supplementing remaining native areas, and along waterways enhancing streams and rivers in riparian plantings. The concept of using stepping stones for increased biodiversity interaction is increasing in restoration circles. Stepping stones are areas of native plantings to increase native biodiversity. Through the use of these stepping stones insects, lizards, and birds are able to increase their ranges to find habitat, food, pollination and increase their future populations’ genetic diversity. The Selwyn Waihora Active Restoration Forum (SWARF) mapped known restoration sites in 2013 for use as stepping stones. This map has not had sites added to it since 2013. Due to the lack of follow up members of SWARF decided that the way the map was created, information on it, the level of accessibility to the general public, new viewpoints and interaction with the map needed to be considered for ongoing use. This follow up was turned into a Summer Scholarship project at Lincoln University. This report will discuss the background of the Stepping Stone concept and how it applies to the Selwyn district and Canterbury, what information is currently available on the SWARF map, how different groups would like to use the map, suggest alternative places the map could be hosted, what information could be available for the public, compare whether similar mapping or information is available through other regional councils and create a map for future use.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Yarr’s Flat Wildlife Reserve & Yarr’s Lagoon: an assessment of fauna present to guide future restoration and conservation of native species
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2016-07) Bowie, Michael H.; Hutson, M.
    Two sites of ecological interest, Yarr’s Lagoon and Yarr’s Flat Wildlife Reserve along the LII or Araiara River in Selwyn District, Canterbury were surveyed for terrestrial fauna of interest. A variety of standard methods including pitfall traps, Malaise traps and light traps (for invertebrates), tracking tunnels (for lizards and mammals), five minute bird counts (for birds) were used to assess the fauna present. A higher diversity of ground beetles were found in willow habitats than native habitats at both Yarr’s Flat and Yarr’s Lagoon. Native moth larva, weevils and mites were found on glasswort at Yarr’s Flat. Eleven and seven native birds were found at Yarr’s Lagoon and Yarr’s Flat respectively. Of interest was a probable sighting of sandpiper curlew at Yarr’s Flat and secretive marsh crake at Yarr’s Lagoon. Lizards found included the common skink at Yarr’s Flat and an unknown skink at Yarr’s Lagoon. Tracking tunnels found prints from possum, mice, hedgehog, rats and mustelid at Yarrs Flat and only possum and mice from Yarr’s Lagoon. Ecological restoration of the two areas are discussed and recommendations for the management of the native biodiversity is given.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Assessing the invertebrate fauna trajectories in remediation sites of Winstone Aggregates Hunua quarry in Auckland
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2016-04) Curtis, K.; Bowie, Michael H.; Barber, Keith S.; Boyer, Stephane; Marris, John W. M.; Patrick, B.
    This study monitored the invertebrates in restoration plantings in the Winstone Aggregates Hunua Quarry. This was to assess the re-establishment of invertebrates in the restoration planting sites and compare them with unplanted control and mature sites. This study follows on from a baseline study carried out in 2014-2015 measuring the restoration trajectory of invertebrates in the Winstone Aggregate Hunua quarry site. A range of entomological monitoring techniques were used and found that dung beetles, millipedes, foliage moths, leaf litter moths and some mite species increased in numbers from the control sites through to the mature sites, while ants, rove beetles, grass moths, some carabid beetles, and worms showed a downwards trend from the mature sites to the control sites. Further monitoring of invertebrates in the restoration area should be carried out.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Conservation and biology of the rediscovered nationally endangered Canterbury knobbled weevil, Hadramphus tuberculatus
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2015) Iles, J.; Bowie, Michael H.; Johns, P.; Chinn, W.
    Three areas near Burkes Pass Scenic Reserve were surveyed for the presence of Hadramphus tuberculatus, a recently rediscovered endangered weevil. The reserve itself was resurveyed to expand on a 2005/2006 survey. Non-lethal pitfall traps and mark and recapture methods were used. Six H. tuberculatus were caught in pitfall traps over 800 trap nights. Day and night searching of Aciphylla aurea was conducted. Four specimens were observed on Aciphylla flowers between 9 am and 1.30 pm within the reserve. No specimens were found outside of the reserve by either method. Other possible locations where H. tuberculatus may be found were identified and some visited. At most locations Aciphylla had already finished flowering, no H. tuberculatus were found. Presence of H. tuberculatus at other sites would be best determined by searching of Aciphylla flowers during the morning from late October onwards.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Establishing a baseline: Ecological monitoring for Panama Rock and Stones remnant, Le Bons Bay, Banks Peninsula
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Ecology Department, 2013-07) Bowie, Michael H.; Smith, M.
    The eastern side of Banks Peninsula was created by eruptions and subsequent erosion of the Akaroa volcano which was active between 9 and 8 million years ago. Banks Peninsula was completely forested but due to human settlement approximately one percent of the forested area was left by the early 1900s. This large-scale removal of forest and the introduction of exotic mammals created a mass extinction of New Zealand’s native biota. The present day landscape is a mixture of bush occupying gullies which either escaped clearance or have regenerated due to more ideal moisture conditions and less disturbance from farming stock. The forested areas consist of either kanuka canopy or a mixed canopy of Fuchsia, mahoe, fivefinger, lemonwood, lacebark, ribbonwood, pigeonwood, kowhai and kaikomako. Within the eastern side of Banks Peninsula, inland from Le Bons Bay, is an area called Panama Rock, also known as Keller’s Peak. This peak is a trachyte dome with a feeder dike trending away south westwards. An invertebrate study on 19 covenant and reserves on eastern Banks Peninsula found that the Panama Rock remnant had high diversity compared to the others. The Panama Rock remnant was bought by the Joseph Langer Trust to conserve the native flora and fauna of the area and to make it available for the public to enjoy. This research aims to identify the native and pest fauna of the area. Monitoring will assist with management decisions by identifying: which native species are present, species in need of conservation, and exotic pests that need to be eradicated. Baseline surveys will allow the Trust to compare with future years and be able to gauge if their management actions are working. If the Trust is planning to trap introduced mammals at Panama Rock and/or the Stones remnant, monitoring will help to determine whether trapping is helping the native biodiversity.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Measuring the restoration trajectory of invertebrates in the Winstone Aggregates Hunua quarry site
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, 2015-05) Stokvis, E.; Bowie, Michael H.; Barber, Keith S.; Vink, Cornelis; Marshall, B.
    In this study we surveyed Winstone Aggregates Hunua Quarry restoration plantings for invertebrates. We wanted to measure the restoration success and used an unplanted control site and a mature forest site in the same area as a comparison. Using different entomological surveying techniques we found that ground beetle and centipede numbers increased from the control site through to the mature forest. Tree weta was well represented in the restored area, while ants, earthworms and rove beetles resulted in a downwards trend from the mature area to the control site. Five native species of snail were found only in the mature forest. Previous studies such as Bowie et al. (2012) Punakaiki restoration project, found similar trends. Both this study and the Punakaiki project are baseline studies. Further research is proposed for the future.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Uptake and persistence of 1080 in plants of cultural importance
    (Lincoln University. Soil, Plant & Ecological Sciences Division, 2004) Ogilvie, Shaun C.; Ataria, James M.; Waiwai, J.; Doherty, J.; Lambert, N.; Lambert, M.
    Research was undertaken for the Animal Health Board under Contract R-80620 "Iwi research on 1080 in plants of cultural importance" to Lincoln University, to determine the field uptake and persistence of 1080 in plants of cultural importance to Maori. The research reported here was carried out between August 2003 and June 2004. The objectives of the study was to identify two culturally-important plant species that may be effected by aerial 1080 bait application. Also to measure the uptake and elimination of 1080 in these selected plant species of cultural importance at field sites using application of 1080 baits. Finally to report findings and engage members of the Lake Waikaremoana Hapu Restoration Trust (Ngai Tuhoe ), and Tuawhenua Trust (Ngai Tuhoe) in a dialogue process regarding the fate of 1080 in plants.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    What do predators eat for supper? Burkes Pass Scenic Reserve predator stomach content analysis for 2010-2011
    (Lincoln University. Department of Ecology., 2013) Fountain, Emily; Pugh, Andrew; Bowie, Michael H.
    Burkes Pass Scenic Reserve, Mackenzie Basin, New Zealand is home to the only known population of the critically endangered Canterbury knobbled weevil, Hadramphus tuberculatus. Major threats to the weevil include introduced predators and habitat loss through weed invasion, herbivores and fire. This report investigates the stomach contents of predators trapped in a 185 hectare perimeter around the reserve. Trapping was conducted by Environment Canterbury from December 2010 to April 2011. The stomachs of hedgehogs, ferrets, feral cats and stoats were analysed and contents were recorded. Hedgehogs consumed the highest amount of invertebrates, present in 20%, and ferrets were the most abundant predator caught; however, no evidence of H. tuberculatus was found in any predator stomachs. We suggest predator trapping continue as part of future management of the reserve to protect not only the endangered weevil species but also other fauna including the recently identified and possibly rare invertebrates and the endemic skink found there.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Pilot trials of secondary seed dispersal potential from tree weta frass by the endemic dung beetle, Saphobius edwardsi in the Punakaiki Coastal Restoration Project, New Zealand
    (Lincoln University. Faculty of Agriculture & Life Sciences., 2016-01) Shields, Morgan; Boyer, Stephane; Bowie, Michael H.
    There has been little research to our knowledge on quantifying ecosystem functions such as potential secondary seed dispersal of endemic dung beetles in New Zealand, especially on the West Coast. The Punakaiki Coastal Restoration Project (PCRP) site is adjacent to the 20.2 ha Nikau Scenic Reserve which is a rare remnant of lowland coastal forest opposite Paparoa National Park within the Punakaiki Ecological District. The site was cleared and surveyed for mining, then farmed until around 1970. It is now the centre of a restoration project to restore a functioning ecosystem while promoting conservation and tourism. As part of the PCRP we investigated the potential of S. edwardsi in providing secondary seed dispersal as an ecosystem function. Our objectives were to gain some understanding on whether S. edwardsi utilised tree weta frass, quantifying frass utilised per night, the distance S. edwardsi travelled per night, seed burial depth and what seeds could be dispersed by tree weta at the site which have potential for secondary seed dispersal by S. edwardsi. We hypothesised that S. edwardsi would utilise 0.01 g of tree weta frass/night/beetle and move a maximum distance of 5 m/night while burying dung and seeds a maximum depth of 40 mm which would allow most seeds to germinate. This information would enable the estimation of the population density, recycling of organic and potential secondary seed dispersal of S. edwardsi at the restoration site.