Department of Tourism, Sport and Society

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The disciplinary backgrounds and fields of study within the Department of Tourism, Sport and Society range from national parks management and outdoor recreation to history, sociology, and geography, to urban recreation, sport management, and tourism in all its forms.


Recent Submissions

  • PublicationOpen Access
    The wellbeing experience within a New Zealand township. New Zealand Treasury’s Living Standards Framework in a hyper-local context : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Troy, Helen
    The New Zealand Treasury published ‘Te Tai Waiora’, its first wellbeing report in November 2022. The report presents data on how wellbeing has changed, how wellbeing is distributed and the sustainability of wellbeing in Aotearoa New Zealand. The data collected are analysed using the Living Standards Framework, which provides New Zealand Treasury with a systematic approach to offer policy advice and identify the implications of policy, based on a range of evidence gathered over time. This research tests the Treasury’s Living Standards Framework at a hyper-local scale (focusing on matters within a small community or specific geographic location), to understand the extent to which a central government approach to measuring wellbeing is appropriate at a local scale. This study found that indicators that provide data for analysis require context and are most relevant when applied ‘at scale’ to identify the wellbeing experience of individuals and communities. Using a mixed methods approach, the data from the quantitative research showed individuals are significantly more satisfied with various aspects of wellbeing at a local scale than at a national scale. These aspects include the natural environment, safety, housing affordability and political voice. In the qualitative data, it was found that, through a series of processes an individual generates their own wellbeing depending upon capabilities, financial security, locality and employment mobility opportunities. Individuals improved their wellbeing by making deliberate choices within the context of those capabilities. Home ownership was associated with employment mobility and individuals made trade-offs between dimensions of wellbeing as a function of personal value. Both research methods revealed that ‘local matters.’ The findings from this study will contribute to the growing literature on wellbeing. This thesis demonstrates that measuring the wellbeing experience of a small community in a specific geographic location can result in significant differences in wellbeing experiences between the national and local scale. Therefore, adopting an ‘at scale’ approach is more appropriate for policy development if central government is concerned with the wellbeing of all New Zealanders, irrespective of their locality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A new approach to understanding involvement: linking involvement to the memorability of experience
    (Springer Nature, 2024) Akhoondnejad, A; Rosin, Christopher; Brennan, C
    Based on the involvement literature, the current research redefines the involvement theory and proposes a new form of involvement, namely situated involvement. The research, then, develops a scale to measure this involvement employing a mixed methods procedure. Afterward, the relationships between enduring, response, and situated involvements as well as the memorability of experience are investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results from a survey of 317 tourists in Queenstown, New Zealand show that the memorability of experience is only impacted by situated involvement, the type of involvement which occurs during an experience. Enduring and response involvements are found to influence situated involvement, and enduring involvement predicts response involvement.
  • PublicationRestricted
    Sense of community, shyness and loneliness in Lincoln Village: A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Social Science with Honours at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2002) Hall, Carly Joanne
    This study used quantitative research methods to investigate the relationships between sense of community, loneliness and shyness. A review of the literature indicated that sense of community had a negative association with loneliness, and that shy people were more likely to experience loneliness than non-shy people. Whilst also attempting to replicate previous research results between loneliness and shyness, and loneliness and sense of community, it was hypothesized that a further relationship would emerge between shyness and sense of community. A questionnaire was developed which included demographic questions, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, (version 3), (Russell, 1996), the revised Cheek and Buss shyness scale (Cheek, Cheek & Rothstein, 1986) and an adapted version of the Sense Of Community Index (SCI). A multi-stage cluster sample of 120 Lincoln residents produced 33 participants. There were no reliable correlations between the three variables, indicating rejection of the proposed hypothesis. Possible reasons for the results are discussed and future recommendations are presented. Despite the results, it is maintained that theoretical reasons warrant further investigation into these areas.
  • PublicationRestricted
    Management planning for a city's parks and recreation system : Planning the parks and recreation system to benefit the urban community: [dissertation, Diploma in Parks and Recreation, Lincoln College]
    (Lincoln College, University of Canterbury, 1981) Brown, Anthony
    The following dissertation outlines an approach to Management Planning for a city Parks and Recreation System. Christchurch City, the administrative area under the authority of the Christchurch City Council, covering an area of 10158 hectares with a population of 164,256 people is used as an example.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Validity and reliability of the VXSport (Omni) device on basketball movement parameters
    (Asociación Española de Análisis del Rendimiento Deportivo, 2024-04-16) Smith, Hoani; Bird, S P; Olsen, P; Kavanagh, Thomas; Hamlin, Michael
    The use of inertial devices in sport have become increasingly common. The aim of this study was to examine the within-day validity and reliability of a relatively new inertial measurement unit at measuring basketball movement parameters. Eighteen well-trained basketball players completed several individual performance tests including linear running and change of directions, acceleration, and decelerations, jumping and impacts to measure the validity and reliability of the microtechnology. The players also completed a specific test called the Basketball Exercise Simulation Test (BEST) to investigate whether the microtechnology could accurately detect more dynamic movements. Pearsons’s correlations were determined linking assessments of the practical measures taken from the inertial measurement unit to criterion measures. Testing revealed good validity between the microtechnology and criterion measures with the 20 m run test at various velocities (6 km.h-¹, 12 km.h-¹, 18 km.h-¹, 24 km.h-¹, maximal speed km.h-¹ (mean bias <5%). However, total distance, body collisions, accelerations and decelerations showed lower validity (mean bias >10%). Total distance, number of sprints, number of sprints >15 km.h-¹, number of decelerations >3m.s-², number of accelerations and decelerations showed very large to nearly perfect reliability (ICC = 0.88 – 0.99). Whereas, relative distance (m.min-1), maximal speed (km.h-¹), total number of accelerations (>3 m.s-²), total number of jumps, average heart rate showed high reliability (ICC 0.77 – 0.87). These results demonstrate the units were able to accurately detect most basketball movement patterns correctly with good repeatability.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    A global review of 50 years of polar tourism scholarship
    Stewart, Emma; Liggett, D; Senigaglia, V; Lubiana Botelho, L
    The first peer-reviewed journal article on polar tourism was published in French by Canada-based Louis-Edmond Hamelin in 1974, marking 2024 as the 50th anniversary of polar tourism scholarship. This presentation discusses the results obtained from a meta-review of journal articles (n=626) searched in 22 different languages and tracks the development of polar tourism scholarship over time (1974-2022). The meta-review employed a keyword search of two online scholarly databases (Scopus and Google Scholar) and other regionally relevant searches. We identified four main phases of polar tourism scholarship. The early days of research (1974- 1991) represented an ‘exploratory’ phase, with an average number of less than one publication annually. This initial period was followed by an ‘establishment’ phase (1992–2006), during which the average number of publications per year increased to nine. A ‘development’ phase (2007-2016) followed, in which polar tourism scholarship grew substantially and solidified at about 19 publications annually on average. The final phase (starting in 2017), labelled the ‘integration’ phase, witnessed the average yearly number of publications to be generally more than twice that of those during the development phase and were dominated by multi-authored and multi-disciplinary scholarship. Also, this recent phase is the most linguistically diverse, with 10 publication languages represented, although articles in English continue to dominate the polar tourism literature (almost 75%). This is a finding not well-explored in previous meta-reviews, and it represents a growing scholarly interest across national boundaries and beyond those states typically associated with polar tourism. The incorporation of articles published in languages other than English allows us to present for the first time a comprehensive and global overview of scholarly output on polar tourism. This linguistic diversity is critical to understanding polar tourism as its growth intensifies and diversifies.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    User perception and acceptance of softshell headgear amongst youth rugby players
    (Asociación Española de Análisis del Rendimiento Deportivo, 2024-03-12) Heward-Swale, AG; Kabaliuk, N; Spriggs, N; Henley, S; Hamlin, Michael; Draper, N
    This study investigated the attitudes, preferences, motivations and acceptance of softshell headgear among youth rugby players. Female and male rugby players (ages 13-17) were surveyed regarding headgear use during training and matches, discontinuation reasons, preferred brands, motivations for use, and reasons for non-use. We assessed confidence without headgear, head injuries, familiarity with specifications, and awareness of benefits/risks. Most (86%) didn't wear headgear during training; 74.4% abstained in matches. Reasons for discontinuation included discomfort and perceived ineffectiveness. Parental advice (78%) and injury protection (52%) drove headgear use. Non-use reasons: lack of ventilation (67%), bulkiness (50%), discomfort (44%), non-compulsory use (36%), and lack of consideration (36%). 44.2% believed headgear protects against head injuries; 30.2% were unsure. The results of this study indicate a range of attitudes among youth rugby players towards the use of headgear. Understanding their motivations and concerns is crucial for improving player safety. While some players see headgear as a valuable protective measure, others are deterred by factors such as discomfort and lack of ventilation. There is a need for greater awareness and education about headgear benefits and risks among rugby players, potential modifications to headgear design to enhance comfort and ventilation should be explored and further research conducted to explore the benefits that headgear has for head impact protection.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    A world without scarcity?
    (Routledge, 2017) Dawson, MC; Rosin, Christopher; Wald, N; Dawson, MC; Rosin, Christopher; Wald, N
    What should be very apparent at this point is that the availability—or perhaps more accurately the accessibility—of resources is a topic that attracts the attention of a wide range of professionals, scholars and activists. In the resulting discourse, global resource scarcity is often regarded as a catalyst for conflict; yet, paradoxically, such scarcity also underlies some of the most important international collaborations. While some natural resources are irrefutably essential for life and human survival, others are more important for livelihoods and economic prosperity. Some resources derive their significance and value from how difficult they are to ‘capture’ and control, while ‘market forces’ determine the worth of others. The fact that natural resources underlie existing conceptions of economic security and achievement makes the capacity to control their access and exploitation highly desirable.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Introduction: Resource scarcity between conflict and cooperation
    (Routledge, 2017) Dawson, MC; Rosin, Christopher; Wald, N; Dawson, MC; Rosin, Christopher; Wald, N
    This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book talks about the relationship between what are perceived to be scarce natural resources and the tendency for access to them to lead to international conflict or cooperation. The diversity of forms and levels of engagement with resource scarcity and its implications for international relations poses particular problems when one attempts to provide a summary, but insightful, overview to those with more general interests in scarcity or politics. The scarcity of resources and the likelihood of such scarcity leading to international conflict is a common feature of public discourse and speculation. The potential for scarcity to initiate forms of international collaboration or cooperation is a much less common element of how we understand the world. In a global context framed by increasing attention to environmental issues and concerns readily appreciated international implications.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Outdoor recreation experience of mainland Chinese students in New Zealand : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Qin Qin
    This thesis investigates the changing role of the culture of origin as a constraint in Mainland Chinese students’ outdoor recreation experience in New Zealand. It aims to better understand their experience by further exploring the influencetial mechanism of one’s cultural background in a cross-cultural scenario. Different countries have different understandings of and ways of practice regarding outdoor recreation. Therefore, when differences arise in cross-cultural scenarios, scholars often turn to culture to seek explanations. In the pursuit of understanding how the culture of origin influences outdoor recreation in cross-cultural scenarios, two explanatory perspectives emerged in previous research. The first perspective regards the role of the culture of origin as the decisive constraint that contributes to the culturally coherent differences in one’s recreational involvement. In studies using this perspective, a set of cultural barriers including traditions and social norms were identified to comprehend what one needs to overcome to participate in cross-cultural scenarios. Meanwhile, the second perspective suggests that the role of culture is not this straightforward, as non-culturally coherent differences also emerge within the same cultural group. Studies from this perspective indicate that different situations, such as local support and social status, can counter the effect of cultural influence as a decisive barrier to outdoor participation. There appears to be a mechanism through which culture changes its role between decisive and situation-interfered influences in one’s practices. Yet, limited attention has been directed toward comprehending this mechanism in the research area. This research explores this mechanism to enhance our understanding of people's outdoor recreation experiences by applying the logic of Archer's analytic dualism concerning the role of culture in cultural encounters. This logic suggests that the role of culture changes based on whether it exerts ideational or practical influence. The ideational influence of culture provides decisive guidance for one’s subsequent actions. Still, once such actions are undertaken, these guidelines turn into practical influences that are affected by other factors, determining the extent of such practices. This logic provides a way to explore the change in the role of the culture of origin embedded in the coexistence of homogeneity and heterogeneity, furthering our understanding of cultural influences. To narrow the scope of this research inquiry to a feasible scale, the outdoor recreation experience of Mainland Chinese students (MCS) in New Zealand was selected. New Zealand and China developed different contexts for understanding and practising outdoor recreation. These differences make outdoor recreation in New Zealand a potential subject for studying the role of the culture of origin. Meanwhile, MCS hold a significant position in the local economy and labour market. A better understanding of how the cultural background affects their outdoor recreation would benefit interested parties aiming to improve the overseas experience of Chinese students or boost revenue in the recreation sectors. Therefore, by focusing on the outdoor recreation experiences of MCS, this research employs in-depth interviews to collect data on cultural influences and their engagement with outdoor recreation. The aim is to establish a connection between the role of culture and their involvement in outdoor recreation. The results indicate that the outdoor experiences of MCS exhibit culturally coherent interpretations of outdoor recreation and situational diversity in practising it. Influenced by their culture of origin, MCS interpret the local way of outdoor recreation as the "Kiwi way," differing from the Chinese way in three aspects: value orientation, way of practice, and the sense of outdoor settings. These cultural differences generate three types of tensions that MCS need to overcome for their participation: 1) dealing with differences in values, where MCS need to maintain their original values while engaging in outdoor activities; 2) addressing variations in the way of practice, requiring them to acquire new knowledge to participate in local outdoor activities; 3) coping with differences in the perception of outdoor environments, necessitating finding adaptable approaches. Moreover, through a comparison of MCS's actual practices, the research results demonstrate that the shared interpretations at the ideational level do not decisively constrain MCS's practices. Their specific activities depend on whether existing resources can alleviate or exacerbate the cultural tensions affecting their engagement in outdoor activities, leading to diversity at the individual practice level. These findings indicate that the changes in the role of culture depend on whether it involves interpreting or practising outdoor recreation. Based on Archer's theoretical logic, it suggests that the influences of culture can be understood as a dualistic constraint role, involving a guiding constraint at the ideational level and a causal constraint at the practical level. At the ideational level, the role of culture involves distinguishing differences and, based on the attributes of these differences, generating diverse practice-oriented constraints. However, at the practical level, the execution of guiding constraints is influenced by environmental factors, leading the role of culture to transform into a coexisting causal constraint with other societal factors. This research investigates how culture influences outdoor recreation, specifically among MCS in New Zealand. Using Archer's analytic dualism, the study reveals a new way to look into cultural influence as a constraint. This enriches theoretical discussions on the interplay between culture and recreational behaviour, paving the way for further exploration in cross-cultural studies. Practically, the findings have implications for enhancing the overseas experience of Chinese students and optimizing the recreation sector.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Intermittent hypoxic exposure with or without exercise improved cardiopulmonary functions in people with cardiovascular risk factors
    (Khon Kaen University, Research and Technology Transfer Affairs Division, 2024-01) Saengjan, W; Muangritdech, N; Namboonlue, C; Tong-Un, T; Manimmanakorn, N; Hamlin, Michael; Sumethanurakkhakun, W; Manimmanakorn, A
    This research aimed to explore the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure (IH) with or without exercise on lung function, lipid profile, and a 6-min walk in people with three cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension stage I, hyperlipidemia, and obesity). Thirty participants were randomly allocated into 3 groups: a control group (CON, n=11) received no training, an intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest group (IHR, n=9), and an intermittent hypoxic training group (IHT, n=10) who combined IH with walking. Both IHR and IHT performed 8 sessions of 3-min of hypoxic breathing (14% O2) alternated with 3-min of normoxic breathing (21% O2) for 48-min per day, twice a week, for 6 consecutive weeks. All participants were measured before and after 6 weeks of theexperimental period. After training, IHR group significantly increased vital capacity (p=0.038) and forced vital capacity (p=0.025) compared to baseline. Similarly, compared to baseline, participants in the IHT group revealed significantly increased vital capacity (p=0.030), forced vital capacity (p=0.031), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p=0.042). Compared to CON, only IHT showed a significant increase in forced vital capacity of 8.6 ±4.5% (p=0.034) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 7.0 ± 3.9%, (p=0.033) after 6 weeks. Both the IHR and IHT participants demonstrated a significantly increased 6-min walk distance (p=0.048 and p=0.004, respectively) compared to CON. The study demonstrated that IH programs can improve lung function and cardiopulmonary fitness which indicates that IH with or without exercise improves some cardiopulmonary functions in at risk patients.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Effects of elastic taping on kyphosis and body balance in the elderly: A randomized crossover study
    (Springer Nature, 2024) Tangpakkakul, S; Manimmanakorn, N; Manimmanakorn, A; Vichiansiri, R; Hamlin, Michael
    Kyphosis produces abnormal posture and reduced body balance in the elderly. Elastic tape may be useful at improving kyphotic posture and body balance. This study aims to evaluate the effects of elastic taping on kyphosis and body balance in the elderly. Ten elderly participants with degenerative kyphotic posture were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups (back taped with stretched elastic tape for 15 min and back taped with non-stretched elastic tape for 15 min). After a 1-h washout period, the groups were swapped over to receive the other intervention. The outcomes measured after each taping technique were Cobb’s angle measurement by inclinometer, perceived pain, and balance measurements by single leg stance test, time up and go test, center of gravity alignment (COG) and modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance test (mCTSIB). There was a significant reduction in kyphotic angle and back pain in both the stretched and non-stretched taping groups (p < 0.05). We also found both taping techniques significantly reduced sway velocity on a foam surface with eyes closed and open (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between taping groups for kyphotic angle, pain reduction or balance. The application of 15 min of stretched and non-stretched elastic tape in the elderly reduced kyphotic angle, back pain, and sway velocity while standing on foam surface in the mCTSIB test. If these changes persist over the long term (days and weeks) taping may be a useful intervention for elderly patients with kyphosis.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Physical activity has a stronger correlation with arterial stiffness than strength, balance, or BMI in an older population
    (Frontiers Media, 2023) Hill, H; Elliot, Catherine; Lizamore, CA; Hamlin, Michael
    Background: Arterial stiffness is associated with an array of debilitating health conditions. While exercise typically has beneficial effects on both arterial stiffness and overall health, more research is needed to understand the associations of different types of fitness indices with arterial stiffness. Aim: To investigate the relationship between balance, strength, cardiovascular fitness and physical activity with arterial stiffness (as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in older adults. Method: Eighty retirement-village residents (24 males, 56 females, age: 78.2 ± 6.4 years, weight: 69.4 ± 12.5 kg, height: 162.9 ± 8.5 cm) completed the Yale Physical Activity Survey, PWV measurement, 30s sit-to-stand leg strength test, hand grip strength assessment, 4-stage balance test, and a 6-min walk fitness test. The number of exiting risk factors (smoking, previous heart incidents, previous stroke(s), having hypertension, or taking anti-hypertension medication) were tallied. Pearson’s correlations were used to assess the relationship between PWV and health and fitness parameters. Results were interpreted using qualitative inference. Results: The number of risk factors (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), age (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.50, p = 0.001) had strong, harmful associations with PWV. Total physical activity minutes/week (r = −0.31 p = 0.01), total energy expenditure Kcal/week (r = −0.30, p = 0.01), and the 6-min walk test (r = −0.29, p = 0.01) had a moderate, beneficial association with PWV, while sit-to-stand (r = −0.27, p = 0.02) and balance (r = −0.27, p = 0.01) had a weak, beneficial association with PWV. Hand grip strength (r = 0.02, p = 0.94) and body mass index (r = −0.04, p = 0.75) had no significant associations with PWV. Discussion: All measured fitness indices had beneficial associations with PWV. However, having more risk factors, increased age, and higher systolic blood pressure had significant (harmful) associations with PWV in our older population.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Connecting through research: A collaborative autoethnography of a positive culture in an inter-institutional research group
    (Otago Polytechnic Press, 2023) Olsen, P; Marshall, H; Choukri, M; Elliot, Catherine; Harris, H; Leong, C; Draper, N; Lizamore, C; Hamlin, Michael
    The LUCARA (Lincoln University, University of Canterbury, and Ara Te Pūkenga) group is a thriving research group based in Ōtautahi Christchurch, New Zealand. The group consists of nine academics in sport and exercise science, health, and nutrition at the three tertiary institutions. The majority of the group members had previously been involved in collaborative research for over 10 years. Initially, the relationships during this time were largely transactional, for example, editorial feedback, funding support, data collection, and statistical support. However, in the last two-and-half years, the group has matured, and relationships have deepened with weekly meetings, connections, and partnerships, which has produced a large increase in the number of collaborations between researchers, sharing of resources, and hence increased research outputs. This narrative explores the organic researcher-led growth in the group, and uses the theme of connections to gain an understanding of how this culture has blossomed over a relatively short time in a sport and allied health research setting.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    ‘Too grandiose, too complicated and too over-organised’: New Zealand anti-Olympism and the embrace of the British Empire Games during the inter-war years
    (2023-07-13) Ryan, Greg
    Presentation given at Sporting Traditions XXIV Conference 2023, Canberra, Australia.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    New Zealand rugby and World War One
    (2023-09-08) Ryan, Greg
    This paper will explore how the pre-war tensions between rugby union and rugby league played out during the war and afterwards – including the debate around the rumours that a conscientious objector was in line for selection for the 1924 All Blacks tour to Britain and France.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Participation, development and tensions in New Zealand donor engagement with non-secular recipients: A case for recognising post-secularity in practice
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-06) Lewthwaite, W; Fisher, David; Rennie, Hamish
    Many authors argue that we live in a post-secular world where religion persists, and where, in public affairs, religious views should have an equal voice with secularity. This article examines participation in international development through that post-secular lens: To what extent do the differing worldviews of the partners affect their relationships when designing and implementing development projects? Fieldwork for the research was conducted mainly through interviews with global donor and practitioner organisations working from New Zealand and with recipients on one project in Bangladesh. We used a typology of three different parties: recipients; secular donor and practitioner organisations; and faith-based donor and practitioner organisations (FBOs). In that triangle of relationships we found the three parties’ beliefs are intensely important to them. But we also found participation tends to be transactional in that the topic of religion is generally avoided, leading to unexplored assumptions and adverse consequences to development of trust between the parties. However, we observed that FBOs and recipients can, through religion, and regardless of what that religion is, have a natural rapport. This is important as less-developed countries are generally profoundly religious. Further, in an extension to some concepts of post-secularity, our research indicated there is value in not just listening but also in debating views in-depth as a pathway to creating common ground. This may be challenging for secular organisations, but facilitators who are accepted by the three parties as understanding and respecting their views could help achieve productive relationships.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Hypoxic exposure at rest or during light to moderate-intensity exercise improved blood pressure and heart rate variability in cardiovascular risk individuals
    (American Society of Exercise Physiologists, 2023-06) Saengjan, W; Hamlin, Michael; Muangritdech, N; Namboonlue, C; Tong-un, T; Manimmanakorn, N; Manimmanakorn, A
    This study evaluated the effects of 6 weeks of intermittent hypoxic at rest or plus exercise and long-lasting effects on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) in cardiovascular risk individuals. Thirty combinations of several CVD risks participants: hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity were randomly allocated into 3 groups: (a) the Control Group (CON, n = 11) received no intervention; (b) the intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest (IHR, n = 9), and the intermittent hypoxic training (IHT, n = 10) combined with walking on a motorized treadmill at a light to moderate-intensity. Both IHR and IHT performed 8 sessions of 3 minutes of hypoxic breathing alternated with 3 minutes of normoxic breathing for 6 weeks. All participants blood pressure and HRV were measured at baseline, at week 6 (POST1), and at week 10 (POST2). The IHR and IHT Groups showed significantly lower SBP (P < 0.05) compared to the CON Group, but not DBP and MAP after the IH training program. Compared to CON, the low-frequency band (VLF) and the low-frequency band and the high-frequency band (LF/HF ratio) showed a significant decrease only in IHT (P < 0.05) at POST1 and VLF remained significantly decreased at POST2. VLF in the IHT Group remained significantly lower than in the IHR Group at POST2. After the IH training program, IHT revealed a significant increase in HF (P < 0.05) compared to the CON Group. HF (n.u.) was a significantly stronger negative correlation with changes in SBP (P < 0.05). The IHT Group showed more effectiveness than the IHR Group. The study suggested this IH training program improved SBP and HRV at POST1. An increase in parasympathetic activity may have played an important role in the SBP reduction seen in this study.
  • PublicationRestricted
    The making of a globally-recognised wine region: A case study of Ningxia, China : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Zhai, Beifang
    Recent theorising about place-making – a key element of regional development and a core theoretical construct in the field of human geography – emphasises the need for researchers to adopt a relational perspective and a naturalistic methodology to understand how, through action and interactions, people create new economic spaces. Building on this literature, this study examines the implication of the commodification of place based on the global countryside and rural culture economy in the context of a wine region in China. The study interprets how local, regional and national actors and agencies in China are working in concert to create a globally-recognised wine region. The study’s location is Ningxia – a rural area with established vineyards and boutique winery clusters. The place-making process involves the local implementation of central government policies and initiatives designed to raise the region’s international profile as a place of high quality wine production and associated wine tourism opportunities for visitors. Throughout the process of commodifying place, this wine region is marked by evidence of global connectivity and flows but, at the same time, this study reveals that these global forces intersect with, and are modified by, local contingencies and specificities including political, economic, physical, cultural and technological elements. The political influences are mainly framed around the regional government and the government authority, the Administration of Development of Grape Industry of Ningxia (ADGIN), as well as regional policies and regulations from the central Chinese government. Economic influences are primarily recognised through financial transactions and capital investment, and marketing activities. The physical characteristics of the location are fundamental to any wine industry and, in this context, have been largely explained in terms of the physical elements of terroir, a French term, further reflecting the influence of the global in the local. Local cultural influences are manifest in the interpretation of the concept of terroir through a traditional Chinese culture and philosophy lens, so that the physical elements of terroir are influenced by local cultural elements. The technological forces discussed mainly relate to the adoption, at a local level, of technological knowledge and equipment in grape growing and wine production. Thus, global forces are interwoven with the local development of the wine industry, through industrial (capital investment), technical and cultural attributes, and new social relationships associated with wine originating beyond the regional level influence the development of a collective regional body. This study contributes to the conceptualisation of a relational sense of place in a particular Chinese wine region and the examination of the process of making a wine region by discussing the construction of a wine region from the perspective of key supply-side stakeholders; by understanding the role of Chinese political and cultural values in making a wine region; and by addressing the interaction of local and global forces in the locality. This study also contributes to the creation or interpretation of local terroir from local-global nexus by investigating a wine region with its specific features in the Chinese context. Finally, his study contributes to providing a reflection of the fact that the global-local nexus means that the emergence of a wine region is not uniform and that global factors and local/regional factors are manifest in different ways. These global-relational perspectives provide insights into how the Ningxia wine region can be perceived as a “newly differentiated global countryside”, being transformed by the interaction of global forces with extant local elements.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    New Zealand attitudes towards the emerging sport of Esports: Content analysis of New Zealand public discourse on Esports : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Benden, Jenn.
    Globally, esports is no longer a new activity due to the expansion of esports tournaments, university scholarships, large sponsorships, and well-documented growth in popularity. Despite the global growth, esports and esports research in New Zealand is in a preliminary phase, with a national sporting body for esports only being approved in 2016. This research sought to develop an understanding of the prominent conversations, attitudes, and discourse in New Zealand through analysing publicly available articles and documents written in New Zealand and by New Zealand authors. A qualitative content analysis method (Bengtsson, 2016) was chosen, focusing on a sentence-by-sentence coding methodology. It was found that esports is yet to be accepted in public discourse, with articles repeatedly using justification language to defend esports against stereotypes and criticisms. Sport was conversely not criticised for these same objections, despite many of the criticisms being challenges sport also faces. Sport continues to be upheld in public discourse in New Zealand as an inherent ‘good’ regardless of potential negative outcomes for participants, while esports is not provided the same benefit of social acceptance, confirming again the Great Sport Myth (Coakley, 2015). Beyond comparisons to sport, it was found that esports faces similar criticisms to videogames, adding to the difficulty of esports finding full acceptance socially and politically. While the data gathering method was set to rule out irrelevant articles, it was not possible to fully separate videogame content from esports content. Future research could compare the videogame and esports discourses to determine whether the themes are the same, similar, or different. Other future research opportunities found include determining a clear picture of the demographics of New Zealand esports players and fans, as well as investigating the current and potential future locations of esports facilities in New Zealand.