AERU publications

Permalink for this collection

Browse

Recent Submissions

  • PublicationOpen Access
    Using digital media and smart technology to increase value for New Zealand agrifood firms
    (2023) Driver, Tim; Guenther, Meike; Saunders, Caroline; Dalziel, Paul; Tait, Peter; Rutherford, Paul
    Over time there has been increasing use of digital media and smart technology by consumers and value chain operators for accessing information and purchasing goods. This signals an important new paradigm in consumer technology that could be used to support efforts to maximise value for New Zealand agrifood products. Examples of digital media and smart technology include e-commerce, social media, and smartphone interactive technology (e.g. QR codes, RFID/NFC). Such technologies can be used to verify product claims, disseminate product information, and allow for product purchasing, thereby shortening the distance between New Zealand firms and consumers in overseas markets. This session explores the media and technology that consumers in international markets for New Zealand's agrifood products are using, and how these can be leveraged by firms for improving market access, enhancing consumer perceptions, and ultimately increasing sales.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The matrix of drivers: 2023 update
    (AERU, Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki, 2024-02) Driver, Tim; Guenther, Meike; Saunders, Caroline
    Enhancing primary sector production and productivity while maintaining and improving our land and water quality for future generations is a key outcome of the National Science Challenge for Our Land and Water. It is therefore important to identify the hierarchy of international and national issues in order to provide an evidence base to guide investment and inform the Challenge Research Strategy. To this end, it was proposed that a small project be conducted, and regularly updated. This project aims to deliver an overview of international and domestic drivers, as well as issues that are of particular relevance to the New Zealand primary sector and land use. This overview is based on a literature search of the most important issues, followed by a survey of key stakeholders as to their opinion of the most important issues affecting New Zealand land use and land use practice from overseas and domestically. In addition, a review of the level of interest and concern of international consumers on various issues is produced relevant to the primary sector. This is the fifth report in this series and provides an updated understanding of the international and national drivers and issues of land use change/practice, and their importance to the primary sector. These drivers will help prioritise where investments in primary sector research based on their relationship to economic growth, social, cultural and environmental interactions. Updates of this research will allow us to understand how drivers and issues change, which will help to assess the impact the Challenge has had as well as future research investment needs. This work also provides a contribution to the Challenge Strategy.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The economic benefits of the New Zealand Food Safety Science and Research Centre
    (AERU, Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki, 2023-05) Guenther, Meike; Driver, Tim; Saunders, Caroline; Dalziel, Paul
    The New Zealand Food Safety Science and Research Centre (NZFSSRC or “the Centre”) is a national, virtual scientific network of New Zealand’s food safety researchers, hosted by Massey University and launched in 2016. The Centre synthesises input from industry, government, researchers and Māori to promote, coordinate and deliver food safety science and research for New Zealand. NZFSSRC is funded by government and industry. In 2022, the NZFSSRC commissioned the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University to quantify the value of the Centre’s work and its impact more broadly in New Zealand. This study builds on a literature review of the benefits of food safety undertaken by Guenther et al. (2022) as part of this research. Research methods included interviews with participants from food industry and a desktop analysis. Three case studies for economic valuation of the Centre’s involvement were constructed. These case studies do not capture all of the benefits of the NZFSSRC, but they are representative examples that indicate its substantial impact.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An economic analysis of the wine industry in Marlborough : Report to the Marlborough Winemakers
    (Lincoln University. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, 1998-03) Bigsby, Hugh; Trought, Mike; Lambie, Ross; Bicknell, Kathryn
    The rapid growth of the wine industry in Marlborough since the early 1970s raises a number of important economic questions. The increase in grape production and wine making has been accompanied by a structural shift on the Wairau Plains, away from pastoral agriculture. This trend appears likely to continue for the foreseeable future. In light of the important tradeoffs which must be made as a regional economy develops, it is imperative to understand the importance of key industries as sources of employment and generators of income and government revenue. This study contributes an understanding of the importance of grapes and wine locally, by quantifying the direct economic impact of the industry to Marlborough's regional economy. In addition, the links between the wine industry and other industries in the Marlborough region are explored through the use of a regional input-output model.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Westpac NZ agribusiness climate change report
    (Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki and Westpac New Zealand Limited, 2022-11-29) Wreford, Anita; Guenther, Meike; Driver, Tim
    Climate change is an increasingly important concern, both globally and in Aotearoa New Zealand. Changes are already being felt in the natural environment, the economy, and communities. The agricultural sector faces risks both from a changing climate, as well as through efforts to reduce its contribution to climate change through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This report presents the summarised findings of research commissioned by Westpac and carried out by the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit (AERU) at Lincoln University (New Zealand), examining the physical and transition risks and opportunities presented by climate change to New Zealand’s primary sector (focusing on dairy, sheep/beef, and horticulture) to the middle of the century, as well as the sector’s vulnerabilities and potential actions to address the effects of climate change.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    National Wheatgrowers' Survey no. 4 : Interim report: 1979-80 season
    (Lincoln College. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, 1979-12) Lough, R. D.; Maclean, R. M.; McCartin, P. J.; Rich, M. M.
    The National Wheatgrowers' Survey is an annual survey being undertaken by the Agricultural Economics Research Unit at Lincoln College on behalf of Federated Farmers of New Zealand Inc. Information relating to wheatgrowing and associated farm enterprises is collected from wheat.growers on two farm visits each year. The first visit takes place after drilling and the second after harvesting. This report summarises the information collected from the survey farms on the first visit for the 1979-80 wheat season. It includes descriptions of the survey farms and the relative importance of various enterprises for the 1979-80 season. and compares these with results obtained for the previous surveys. Average establishment costs for the wheat crop are also presented. A more detailed report covering the information · presented in this report, together with that collected on the second farm visit (after harvest), will be available by mid 1980.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    A briefing on the New Zealand macroeconomy, 1960-1990
    (Lincoln University. Department of Economics and Marketing., 1991) Dalziel, Paul C.; Lattimore, Ralph G.
    In the opening lecture to the Stage One Economics class at Lincoln University, we tell our students that the first step in macroeconomics is to define and describe the key variables which are the object of our study. Only when we understand what is meant by real growth, unemployment, inflation, the Balance of Payments, the terms of trade, the exchange rate and so on, and only when we know how they have behaved over time, is it sensible to begin putting together macroeconomic models which seek to explain their behaviour, and then to use those models to provide policy advice.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Towards a unified theory of supply chain value creation and capture
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-11-02) McIntyre, Tiffany; Wilson, Mark; Childerhouse, P
    The value provided to market by competing supply chains determines success. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of how supply chains create and distribute this value is paramount. The purpose of this research is to synthesis the value creation and value capture concepts in a supply chain context. A case study of an extended agribusiness supply chain is used to empirically explore how value is created and captured with a specific focus on the interplay of the two concepts. The results identify the core value creation drivers and enablers, and value appropriation mediators that determine the net value capture of a supply chain. Insights from the exploratory case study are synthesised into an overarching model. Identification of the symbiotic relationship of value creation and value capture advances our knowledge beyond current discrete conceptualizations. By drawing upon value theory and the empirical insights, the proposed unified theory provides novel implications for theoreticians and managerial decision makers.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Development of water resoures
    (New Zealand Water Conference, 1970) Johnson, R. W. M.
    In this introductory session this morning I want to briefly outline the economic properties of water and some of the economic problems associated with its management and development. The purpose of the paper is to set the scene for the rest of the conference and to broadly state the economist's position on the subject of resource use. A more detailed paper in the economics of water allocation has already been circulated and will be formally presented at tomorrow mornings session. This paper wlll therefore range rather wider than the particular topic of allocation of resources and will only touch in passing upon the issues to be discussed tomorrow.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The economics of water allocation
    (New Zealand Water Conference, 1970) Johnson, R. W. M.
    This paper sets out the pure theory of resource allocation and its application to the water resource. The study of economics works from a central body of theory which the practising economist modifies in the light of any particular situation, It is important to note that the objective function in any analysis needs to be clearly stated before the doctrine can be applied. If the assumptions upon which an analysis is being made are not explicit nor fully understood then it is likely that the analysis itself will be faulty and unnecessary debate will follow. The theory of resource allocation is pure theory and some of the modifications which are required in practice have already been outlined in an introductory paper. No further apology for the unrepentant text book approach in what follows should be required,
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Climate change adaptation through an integrative lens in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Taylor & Francis on behalf of Royal Society Te Aparangi, 2023-08-17) Lawrence, J; Wreford, Anita; Blackett, P; Hall, D; Woodward, A; Awatere, S; Livingston, ME; Macinnis-Ng, C; Walker, S; Fountain, Joanna; Costello, MJ; Ausseil, A-GE; Watt, MS; Dean, SM; Cradock-Henry, NA; Zammit, C; Milfont, TL
    Climate change is being felt across all human and natural systems in Aotearoa New Zealand and is projected to worsen this decade as impacts compound and cascade through natural system and sectoral dependencies. The effectiveness of adaptation is constrained by how fast greenhouse gas emissions are reduced globally, the pace of change, the frequency and progression of impacts, and the capacity of our natural, societal and political systems to respond. We explore how these systems and sectors interact with existing and projected climate change stressors by categorising climate change impacts (Trends and Events) and consequential thresholds (Thresholds), and by grouping systems and sectors by types (Typologies). This approach has identified commonalities and differences between the typologies which are illustrated with examples. Critical constraints and opportunities for adaptation have been identified to guide sector adaptation decision-making and for ongoing adaptation progress and effectiveness monitoring. Constraints are found across all sectors, and opportunities exist to address them through modelling and projections, monitoring frameworks, decision tools and measures, governance coordination and integration of the Māori worldview of the relationship between humans and nature. However, limits to adaptation exist and will increase over time unless all sectors and all nations urgently reduce their emissions.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The matrix of drivers: 2022 update
    (AERU, Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki, 2022-05) Driver, Tim; Duff, S; McIntyre, Tiffany; Saunders, Caroline
    Enhancing primary sector production and productivity while maintaining and improving our land and water quality for future generations is a key outcome of the National Science Challenge for Our Land and Water. It is therefore important to identify the hierarchy of international and national issues in order to provide an evidence base to guide investment and inform the Challenge Research Strategy. To this end, it was proposed that a small project be conducted, and regularly updated. This project aims to deliver an overview of international and domestic drivers, as well as issues that are of particular relevance to the New Zealand primary sector and land use. This overview is based on a literature search of the most important issues, followed by a survey of key stakeholders as to their opinion of the most important issues affecting New Zealand land use and land use practice from overseas and domestically. In addition, a review of the level of interest and concern of international consumers on various issues is produced relevant to the primary sector. This is the fourth report in this series and provides an updated understanding of the international and national drivers and issues of land use change/practice, and their importance to the primary sector. These drivers will help prioritise where investments in primary sector research based on their relationship to economic growth, social, cultural and environmental interactions. Updates of this research will allow us to understand how drivers and issues change, which will help to assess the impact the Challenge has had as well as future research investment needs. This work also provides a contribution to the Challenge Strategy. This report is structured as follows: Chapter 1 provides an introduction to this report and its wider context; Chapter 2 presents the results of a survey of primary sector stakeholders regarding their views of the importance of key international and domestic drivers of land use change/practice; Chapter 3 examines future trends and challenges related to land use change/practice (particularly within a New Zealand context); and Chapter 4 concludes the report and provides a summary of its findings.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Emissions targets of New Zealand's agricultural export competitors – a literature review
    (AERU, Lincoln University | Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki, 2022-04) Guenther, Meike; Saunders, John; Driver, Tim
    This literature review forms the initial assessment of a trade modelling exercise to examine changes in New Zealand and global livestock emissions, given the implementation of carbon pricing in New Zealand. The modelling will also examine the effects of international action on agricultural emissions reductions from New Zealand’s main export competitors.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Australasia
    (Cambridge University Press on behalf of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2023) Lawrence, J; Mackey, B; Chiew, F; Costello, MJ; Hennessey, K; Lansbury, N; Nidumolu, UB; Pecl, G; Rickards, L; Tapper, N; Woodward, A; Wreford, Anita; Alexandra, J; Ausseil, A-G; Awatere, S; Bardsley, D; Bell, R; Blackett, P; Boulter, S; Collins, D; Cradock-Henry, N; Creamer, S; Darbyshire, R; Dean, S; Di Luca, A; Dowdy, A; Fountain, Joanna; Grose, M; Hajkowicz, S; Hall, D; Harris, S; Hayman, P; Hodgkinson, J; Hussey, K; Jones, R; King, D; Linnenluecke, M; Livengood, E; Livingston, M; Macinnis-Ng, C; McFadgen, B; McMichael, C; Milfont, T; Moggridge, B; Monks, A; Morrison, S; Mosby, V; Onyango, E; Paddam, S; Pearce, G; Pearce, P; Ranasinghe, R; Schoeman, D; Tomlinson, R; Walker, S; Watt, M; Westra, S; Wise, R; Zammit, C; Pörtner, H-O; Roberts, DC; Tignor, M; Poloczanska, ES; Mintenbeck, K; Alegría, A; Craig, M; Langsdorf, S; Löschke, S; Möller, V; Okem, A; Rama, B; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wratt, D
    Observed changes and impacts Ongoing climate trends have exacerbated many extreme events (very high confidence). The Australian trends include further warming and sea level rise sea level rise (SLR), with more hot days and heatwaves, less snow, more rainfall in the north, less April–October rainfall in the southwest and southeast and more extreme fire weather days in the south and east. The New Zealand trends include further warming and sea level rise (SLR), more hot days and heatwaves, less snow, more rainfall in the south, less rainfall in the north and more extreme fire weather in the east. There have been fewer tropical cyclones and cold days in the region. Extreme events include Australia’s hottest and driest year in 2019 with a record-breaking number of days over 39°C, New Zealand’s hottest year in 2016, three widespread marine heatwaves during 2016–2020, Category 4 Cyclone Debbie in 2017, seven major hailstorms over eastern Australia and two over New Zealand from 2014–2020, three major floods in eastern Australia and three over New Zealand during 2019–2021 and major fires in southern and eastern Australia during 2019–2020.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    How much less? Estimating price discounts for suboptimal food with environmental and social credence attributes
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023-02-12) Tait, Peter; Saunders, Caroline; Dalziel, Paul; Rutherford, Paul; Driver, Tim; Guenther, Meike
    Price discounting strategies for suboptimal food perform an essential part in reducing food waste. This study provides new information empirically estimating discounts for levels of apple injury and deformity consistent with United States Department of Agriculture definitions using a Discrete Choice Experiment with Californian consumers. Latent Class Modelling identifies consumer segments with differing preferences for injury and deformity, alongside social responsibility and environmental claims. While discounts range substantially across segments, levels of deformity negatively influence choices more than equivalent levels of injury. Required discounts can be reduced by the presence of beneficial credence attributes, particularly an organic claim. We find a segment of respondents indifferent to suboptimal characteristics and requiring no discount to select suboptimal apples. These consumers have stronger preferences for environmental and social attributes, are more likely to be female, more educated, younger and concerned about genetic engineering. Preferences for social responsibility claims vary over the targeted beneficiaries, with programmes focused on workers preferred more overall. Willingness-to-pay for greenhouse gas reductions are relatively diminutive; however, 83% of the respondents support at least moderate reductions. This study contributes to understanding behaviours towards suboptimal food and is beneficial to forming food waste reduction strategies by identifying discount levels across consumer types.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Advancing primary sector adaptation in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023-04-19) Wreford, Anita
    Climate change is already being experienced across the primary sector in Aotearoa New Zealand. Adapting to the impacts already being observed, while also anticipating future impacts, requires consideration of different time frames as well as grounding within the farmer or grower’s own contexts. Uncertainty regarding longer-term climatic changes can present challenges for decision-making in the present time, but a growing body of analytical and practical processes can support this. Although some farmers are experimenting with different types of adaptation, more generally there is a dearth of action, particularly planning beyond the present and immediate future. Policy for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness and lifetimes of adaptation actions is required, as well as extension services supporting farmers and growers.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    ‘As a farmer you've just got to learn to cope’: Understanding dairy farmers' perceptions of climate change and adaptation decisions in the lower South Island of Aotearoa-New Zealand
    (Elsevier, 2023-02) Griffin, C; Wreford, Anita; Cradock-Henry, NA
    The impacts and implications of climate change – such as floods, droughts, heavy rainfall and increased regulation – are affecting dairy farming practices in the lower South Island (Te Waipaounamu) of Aotearoa-New Zealand. Adapting to these changes, in an equitable and transformational manner, is dependent on understanding the underlying root causes of vulnerability alongside local knowledge and values. We apply an intersectional values-based and contextual analysis to describe how past and present processes of agrarian change interact across different farmer identities to influence adaptive pathways. Local knowledge, place-based experience, values and perceptions of fairness intersect with different facets of a farmer's identity – such as financial capacity, land ownership status, debt arrangements, age and gendered participation – to enable or constrain adaptive action. Notably, notions of fairness, whether real or perceived, vary across farmer groups, and influence the kinds of adaptation activities that dairy farmers are willing, or potentially able, to engage in. The results call for more contextualised engagement with farming communities, and highlight the need to build a shared understanding of the complex historical, social, economic, cultural and environmental drivers of past, present and future change, in this highly productive, yet risky, agricultural landscape.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Severe climate change risks to food security and nutrition
    (Elsevier B.V., 2023) Mirzabaev, A; Bezner Kerr, R; Hasegawa, T; Pradhan, P; Wreford, Anita; Cristina Tirado von der Pahlen, M; Gurney-Smith, H
    This paper discusses severe risks to food security and nutrition that are linked to ongoing and projected climate change, particularly climate and weather extremes in global warming, drought, flooding, and precipitation. We specifically consider the impacts on populations vulnerable to food insecurity and malnutrition due to lower income, lower access to nutritious food, or social discrimination. The paper defines climate-related “severe risk” in the context of food security and nutrition, using a combination of criteria, including the magnitude and likelihood of adverse consequences, the timing of the risk and the ability to reduce the risk. Severe climate change risks to food security and nutrition are those which result, with high likelihood, in pervasive and persistent food insecurity and malnutrition for millions of people, have the potential for cascading effects beyond the food systems, and against which we have limited ability to prevent or fully respond. The paper uses internationally agreed definitions of risks to food security and nutrition to describe the magnitude of adverse consequences. Moreover, the paper assesses the conditions under which climate change-induced risks to food security and nutrition could become severe based on findings in the literature using different climate change scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways. Finally, the paper proposes adaptation options, including institutional management and governance actions, that could be taken now to prevent or reduce the severe climate risks to future human food security and nutrition.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    What about the users? An exploration of the users and potential users of the external reports of government departments in New Zealand
    (Lincoln University, 1991) Hay, David
    There have been significant reforms to public sector management and external reporting in New Zealand. The changes include requiring government departments to publish more frequent, and higher-quality, external reports. The benefits (if any) to the users and potential users of the reports have not previously been the subject of research. This exploratory study obtained the views of a variety of people concerned with external reports by government departments. The method used consisted of interviews and document analysis. It was useful in obtaining information about the views held by those concerned with public sector reports. Perceptions of the value of the reforms varied between different groups of people affected. People concerned with public sector accounting practice or standard-setting were the most enthusiastic about the reforms. Parliamentarians were in favour of the reforms, but they viewed the changes as mainly directed at providing better information for their own use. Journalists were less convinced that useful information was being provided. Journalists, politicians and other users or potential users showed much more interest in specific controversial public issues than in the overall performance or accountability of government departments. The findings also indicated that the reforms had little reference to users. External users had not been an important influence in demanding the new reports, and appeared to have little interest in them. Thus a 'user needs' study is not appropriate, and research that examines and explains the reforms will need to apply other approaches.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The impact of a linked useage of the open-to-buy system and retail inventory method on performance measurement
    (Lincoln University, 1991) Goodwin, David R.
    Because of the need to match consumer demands with merchandise offered, the most significant tangible asset held by retailers is inventory. The selection of merchandise and its subsequent control is critical if profit objectives are to be met. A system frequently used by retailers to control inventories is the Open-To-Buy (OTB) system. The objective of this system is the control of purchases so that corporate profitability objectives are met.