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Dissertations at Lincoln University may be submitted as part of a course of study towards a Masters degree by examination, a Bachelors degree with Honours, a Postgraduate Diploma or a Graduate Diploma. Dissertations are extended research essays and do not have equivalent standing to theses.

Students wishing to submit dissertations should see the Depositing theses and dissertations guide.


Recent Submissions

  • PublicationEmbargo
    Tannin – starch interplay: Investigating the impact of grape tannins on the properties of various starches : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Kaur, Harkamal
    Starch is a vital macronutrient found in different concentrations across various foods. The structure and physicochemical properties of starch can vary from one source to other, directly or indirectly influencing how it interacts with other bio-macromolecules in the food systems. Interaction of starch with bio-molecules such as tannins can significantly enhance the overall textural-cum-nutritional properties of starch. Tannins, a rich source of phenolic compounds and exhibits antioxidants activity, can interact with various molecules, including starch and proteins in foods, thereby enhancing the nutritional profile of foods. The interaction between starch and tannin molecules in foods has enhanced properties like texture, gelatinization, retro-gradation and breakdown of starch into smaller sugars. This improvement has enabled food scientists to produce foods with a lower glycemic index. This study aimed to develop starch - tannin complexes using starches from three different botanical sources and grape tannins derived from both skin and seeds. All the three normal starches (5% w/v), with amylose content nearly 30%, were cooked with grape skin and grape seed tannins (10 % by starch weight). Various characterizations were carried out to analyze the effect of tannins on starch properties. The quantity of bound and unbound tannins was quantified through methyl cellulose precipitation method, which revealed nearly 95% of tannins were bound to starch molecules in the solution. Furthermore, to detect the phenolic compounds in tannins and starch – tannin complexes, HPLC was performed. A decrease in the proportion of phenolic compounds present in grape skin and grape seed tannins occurred after complexation with starch, indicating development of possible molecular interactions among starch and tannins. Starch-iodine complexes were developed to further elucidate the mechanism of interaction between starch and tannins. A decrease in the absorbance values near 500-540 nm and 540-660 nm gave an idea regarding tannin interaction with amylose and amylopectin chains. In case of pea starch-tannin complexes, a decrease in the absorbance values within spectral range of 540-660nm proved the binding of tannins with amylose chains. Particle size distribution also supported the development of molecular interactions between these two biomolecules. For pea starch-tannin complexes, the particle size was constrained to the range within 40-70 µm in contrast to pea starch control samples, for which the particle size distribution ranged within 20-200 µm. It reveals that the particle size of complexes formed during conjugation of tannins with starch molecules was ranging within 40-70 µm. Back extrusion textural properties were analyzed to notice the effect of tannins on the starch properties such as firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. For corn and pea starch-tannin complexes, a decrease in the firmness and consistency and an increase in the other two properties were observed while an opposite trend was noticed for wheat starch-tannin complexes in contrast to the starch control samples. These properties provide an insight about the textural properties of starch, which can further help in improving the sensory profile of foods containing starch-tannin complexes. Tannins exhibit antioxidant properties and foods rich with antioxidants are believed to boast nutritional profile of such foods. In FRAP assay, starch bound tannin molecules were able to reduce the Fe3+ ions before and after four hours of incubation at 37°C, thus, highlighting the potential contribution of starch-tannin complexes to the antioxidant ability in foods. In-vitro starch digestion revealed the capability of tannins to prevent the digestion of starch molecules among all the three starches. A significant RDS, SDS and TDS decrease was observed in starch-tannin complexes, which promises the potential of these tannins to improve the overall sensory-cum-nutritional profile of starchy foods.
  • PublicationRestricted
    Expressed values in social media posts regarding the Three Waters Act : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) van Hout, Samuel
    The Three Waters Act, which dealt with the reforming of wastewater, stormwater, and drinking water systems in New Zealand, is more commonly known simply as “Three Waters”. It has gained a variety of positive and negative feedback from the public in response, causing it to be an issue of contention. This research seeks to understand this public response through the application of an environmental psychology framework to identify which values underpin people’s perception of the issue. By identifying the impacts of such processes, it looks to establish a better understanding of how to manage contrasting interests for planning issues.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Reshaping Christchurch’s public transport system: The potential of transit orientated development and rail : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Chrystal, Aidan
    Christchurch, New Zealand, is a city with a seemingly forgotten rail history. The city once had an intricate tram system that served much of the city which was removed and sealed over in the 1950s, and a heavy rail system that serviced much of the surrounding Canterbury townships and the South Island which has served only tourists since 1970. This abandoning of the rail network that once shaped the region was due to the rapid uptake of private vehicle usage which was more convenient and cheaper than rail. In recent years studies into the feasibility of reinstating public rail transport have received significant interest from local government and public due to growing concerns about climate change and the city’s urban sprawl. This research will investigate the potential of a public rail network in the Greater Christchurch region of New Zealand and will provide further analysis Rapid Mass Transit options in the region. Literature was reviewed on the current and previous rail proposals for the Greater Christchurch region as well as reviewing successful rail projects internationally. Key informant semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the Christchurch City Council/Greater Christchurch Partnership, Environment Canterbury and The Ministry of Transport to ascertain the key barriers and enablers of implementing a rail system in Christchurch. A quantitative analysis calculated the possible ridership numbers of an comprehensive Greater Christchurch region was also conducted using ArcGis, Census Commuter Data with Excel-based equations. This helped create a key research finding of an upper limit of 376,063 daily trips or 137,262,995 yearly trips that could be moved by rail between the catchments as defined within ArcGis. Other key findings highlight the importance of transit orientated development (TOD) in the success of rail whilst highlighting the success of new rail is at the expense of other transportation modes such as private vehicles. This suggests restricting cars in densified zones such as the central city being key to influencing a mode shift. Additionally, a change in mindset is also needed from the public to adopt public transport and from planners to find better ways of examining the potential success of rail through Cost-benefit analysis.
  • PublicationRestricted
    Modulating acidity and bioactivities of sauerkraut with Proprionibacterium freudenreichii : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Luthi, Antonia
    Health and nutrition are inextricably connected, and as consumer demand for health promoting products grows, the food industry is responding with the development of functional foods. Synthetic vitamins are commonly supplemented to maintain good health, particularly Vitamin B12, as it is an essential micronutrient obtained exclusively through the consumption of animal derived foods. This leaves vegans and plant based eaters at risk of deficiency. Studies have shown that Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be successfully co-fermented with Latic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce B12 in grain based substrates. In this study P. freudenreichii was inoculated into a traditional sauerkraut fermentation, resulting in synthesis of B12 at promising levels. Acidity was also modulated when compared with sauerkraut produced by spontaneous LAB fermentation, highlighting the potential for the wider organopleptic appeal of sauerkraut.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    Studies of bioactive compounds in brown and red onions (skin and flesh) : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Yang, Bo
    Onions (Allium cepa L.) have been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years around the world. The bioactive compounds in onions such as phenolic compounds, are beneficial for the health of humans and can potentially reduce the risk of some diseases, which will lead to longevity of the population. Onion skin is non-edible and is always discarded by consumers and food producers. However, onion waste, mainly consisting of onion skin, is still a rich source of bioactive compounds. Red and brown onion samples in this dissertation were divided into two parts (skin and flesh) and two different extraction methods using two different solvents were tested. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were conducted to assess the bioactivity of onion extracts. The TPC, TFC values were significantly higher in the skin for both kinds of onions (p < 0.05) and 70% ethanol also had a significantly positive effect on the yields of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (p < 0.05) compared with reverse osmosis (RO) water. Red onions (both skin and flesh) had higher values than brown onions. Three antioxidant assays (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays) were conducted and onion skin also showed higher antioxidant activity than flesh. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were employed to identify and quantity quercetin in onion skin and flesh. The quercetin content had a similar distribution to TPC and TFC.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Assessing the likely impacts of removing minimum parking requirements in New Zealand : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Ashcroft, Devon
    Minimum Parking Requirements (MPRs) determine the minimum number of car parks developers must provide based on the development, land use or activity occurring. Initially developed to manage car ownership growth and prevent the overspill of private vehicles onto surrounding streets, it has become increasingly evident that these requirements are unnecessary, and in fact, have resulted in more negative consequences than benefits. Planners and developers believe MPRs are overly restrictive, lack flexibility, and contribute to inefficient use of valuable land by providing excessive car parking rather than allocating this for housing or commercial development. Therefore, there has been a global shift toward gradually removing MPRs, with this change incorporated by New Zealand through the National Policy Statement on Urban Development 2020 (NPS-UD). Under the NPS-UD, MPRs are no longer allowed within district plans of tier 1, 2 and 3 territorial authorities, with all MPRs required to be removed by February 2022. Given the recent adoption of this change, a substantial knowledge gap exists in the research regarding implications in the New Zealand context. This research examines the potential positive and negative impacts of this policy change and how it will affect communities differently throughout New Zealand, with a specific focus on Christchurch, Auckland and Whangarei. Additionally, the research provides recommendations for complementary policies to accompany the removal of MPRs. The primary research method used was semi-structured interviews, analysed through in-depth thematic analysis. Interviewees included planners and developers from Auckland, Whangarei, and Christchurch. The findings from these interviews were compared and contrasted to existing literature and categorised into three overarching research questions. To ensure that communities gain maximum benefit from the policy change, four key recommendations are proposed to implement alongside the removal of MPRs. These recommendations include adopting a flexible and targeted approach, increasing alternative transport modes, strengthening on-street parking management and enforcement, and suggesting additional design criteria to be implemented with the removal of MPRs.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An analysis of the implications of planned behaviour theory on walkability in Christchurch, New Zealand : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Davis, Jack
    Walkability has recently become a key indicator of well-functioning cities. These cities have the ability to reduce carbon emissions, enhance social cohesion, and increase human physical health. With cities around the world striving to create more of these walkable areas, it is important to identify the primary drivers of this behaviour. This dissertation explores the implications of Planned Behaviour Theory to assess whether it can be used to predict human transport behaviour. Walkability for this study has been defined as the proximity of which, on average, people are from their needed amenities. This research took a quantitative approach and aimed to analyse the walkability across three areas of Christchurch, New Zealand, with a particular focus on how this can be applied to inform decision making on local policy. The independent variable in this study was the average time taken, in minutes, to reach essential services including healthcare, supermarkets, and education. A one-way ANOVA identified a statistically significant (F(2,54) = 35.27, p <0.001) result between the most walkable area and the two areas of less walkability. Riccarton South, identified as a 10-minute neighbourhood, contributed most significantly to this difference and was characterised by having greater access to amenities compared to the other two neighbourhoods of Somerfield West and Parklands. Two additional variables, time of day as well as day of the week, were also analysed and identified. No statistically significant result across the three neighbourhood areas were found. This research provides valuable insight into the psychological behaviour of people and provides recommendations to policy and planning practitioners as they seek to create these well functioning areas.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    Lamb pH and meat quality: studies on biochemical changes in high pH meat associated with pre-slaughter farmyard stress : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Gibbs, Benjamin Hamish
    Producing meat of the highest quality is of the utmost importance to the red meat industry. This study looked at how energy metabolic changes and protein profiles in sheep were affected by stress before post-mortem, this gave critical insights into lamb meat quality. A study of biochemical shifts related to high-pH lamb meat with pre-slaughter stress was conducted. This study was conducted using a sample of 20, six-month-old ram lambs of the Coopworth breed (two individuals were of mixed Coopworth/Hampshire breeds) that were grazed on pasture until culling. Two treatments of control and stress were applied. The control treatment was minimal stress applied before slaughter, sheep were brought straight through the yards to the slaughterhouse. In the stress treatment, stressful conditions were applied via the use of heading dogs moving the sheep around in the yards for 10 minutes, at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours before slaughter. This caused an elevated metabolic rate in these individuals pre-slaughter. Animals were harvested immediately and tissue samples were snap frozen at -80 °C. Energy metabolic changes of the two intermediate twitch muscles Gracilis (G) and Semimembranosus (SM) were studied through the use of a D-Glucose and L-Lactic acid assay. A non- significant difference was seen in the muscles G and SM for their total glycogen levels between the stress and control treatment. In the lactic acid assay, a non-significant difference was seen in the total lactic acid levels between the two muscle fibres between the stress and control treatment. For the protein profile analysis, it was decided to study four muscles, the previous two mentioned, as well as the fast-twitch muscle Longissimus lumborum (LL) and the slow-twitch muscle Supraspinatus (SS). The protein profiles of these muscles were studied through the use of a Bradford protein determination assay and gel electrophoresis imaging. The Bradford assay revealed that there was no relationship between the total soluble protein concentrations and the stress treatment in all four of the muscle fibres. The gel electrophoresis images when analysed showed a significant difference in the relative frequency of two protein bands at around 100 and 16 kDa in the two muscles SM (P-values 0.05 and 0.01) and LL (P-values 0.03 and 0.05). These results show the potential effect of stress on protein profiles, however further protein sequencing is needed before further conclusions can be made. An analysis of post-mortem pH values was also conducted from measurements after 90 minutes and 24 hours post-mortem (ultimate pH). A non-significant difference was seen after 90 minutes but, a significant difference was seen after 24 hours between all four muscle fibres and stress. Stressed carcasses had significantly higher pH values. Notably the slow twitch muscle SS exhibited higher ultimate pH values while the fast twitch LL muscle exhibited lower ultimate pH values. This indicated a fibre-type-specific response to the stress treatment in the muscle samples studied. Overall this study provided valuable insights into biochemical shifts occurring in sheep muscles under stress conditions. Further understanding of these processes is vital for the meat industry especially for the correct grading of meat before export/ sale. Future studies should look at sequencing the specific proteins that affect the stress treatment to see if they are related to meat quality parameters such as colouring, tenderness and the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Rethinking social infrastructure in spatial planning: Exploring the role of farmers markets as social infrastructure for community wellbeing : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Farrar, Jessica
    Farmers markets, an example of social infrastructure, positively influence community wellbeing in multifaceted ways. Despite an expanding international body of literature, research on the diverse roles of farmers markets in Aotearoa New Zealand (ANZ) remains limited. This dissertation addresses this gap by focusing on the Selwyn District, Canterbury, New Zealand . It employs a case study approach to analyse and compare farmers markets in Lincoln and Rolleston, contrasting towns within the Selwyn District. These markets, marked by their temporal and transitory nature, evolve with the seasons, often occupying spaces designated for other purposes. Through qualitative research methods including semi-structured interviews with market organizers, Selwyn District Council staff, observations, and document reviews, this dissertation explores the integration of community-driven initiatives, specifically farmers markets, into local strategic planning. Guided by a social capital framework, the analysis reveals that farmers markets transcend mere economic exchange, functioning as socially interactive spaces that enhance social capital. The findings echo international literature, emphasising the various ways in which farmers markets contribute to community wellbeing. The study identifies differentiating factors between Rolleston and Lincoln, contributing to the latter's greater success in hosting farmers markets. Notably, the Selwyn District Council emerges as an exemplar in providing dedicated spaces for farmers markets, particularly in Lincoln, and integrating community interests into spatial plans. The conclusions drawn underscore the essential role of farmers markets as social infrastructure and advocate for their delibrate incorporation into local strategic planning for fostering community wellbeing.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    Texture and consistency in oatmeal: A study on the effects of plant-based protein : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Kurniawan, Kelvin
    Oatmeal is a very popular breakfast cereal all over the world. Oatmeal is known for its practicality as well as its health benefits. This fast and nutritious breakfast meal can provide high carbohydrate and dietary fiber such as β-glucan, which can reduce LDL cholesterol. However, it is also known that plant-based foods such as oatmeal has low protein content. This study investigated the rheological and textural changes on oat paste when fortified with five different plant proteins such as fava bean, mung bean, pea protein, chickpea, and green lentil in order to boost its nutritional value. The study of this particular topic is very important for food developers since having a better understanding of starch-protein interaction will allow food developers to modify the rheological properties and to improve the organoleptic quality of various food products better, so that they can be more appealing and satisfying to consumers. In this experiment, oat flour was combined with different plant proteins and distilled water, then the mixture was put into a waterbath for 30 minutes at 95 °C. The textural analysis showed that the addition of some plant proteins such as mung bean and pea protein can increase the firmness, consistency, and cohesiveness; while the addition of chickpea and green lentil can decrease those factors. When exposed to increasing shear rate, the oat-protein mixture can maintain its viscosity better than the oatmeal alone. However, the addition of plant protein to oat paste in rising temperature can make the oatmeal more vulnarable to shear rate, which resulted to a decreased in viscosity. Meanwhile, the dynamic rheology tests such as amplitude sweep test and frequency test showed the crossover point in which the mixture turn from visoelastic solid to viscoelastic liquid and the rheological stability of the mixture in an increasing angular frequency range. Furthermore, the findings from this study can be used as a reference for food developers to expand the application of plant-based proteins in oatmeal or any oat-based/starch-based food products.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    Synergy of Oatmeal and Plant Proteins: Effect of different plant proteins on oatmeal nutritional profile : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Kaur, Manpreet
    Oats, an extremely common staple food, are rich in health-promoting chemicals which have been researched and demonstrated to have favourable impacts on human health. Plant proteins are gaining more attention these days owing to sustainability and changing food habits of people. This study investigated if plant proteins could be added to oat porridge to make it more balanced and healthier from nutritional aspects such as qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins, digestibility and antioxidant activity. In case of protein digestibility, fava bean, green lentil, and mung bean supplemented oat porridge samples showed significant difference than oat flour samples. Similarly, pea and chickpea had no influence on the starch digestibility of oat samples. Amino acid profiling of samples had mixed results as some of the amino acids did not differ significantly while others showed significant difference. However, there was no significant difference found in antioxidant activity of oat flour and plant protein supplemented with oat flour samples. The research results therefore serve as a solid foundation for understanding the impact of different plant proteins on oat porridge systems and determining which kinds of proteins can be added to achieve desirable effects to maximise health advantages. Future work investigating the effect of plant proteins on oats, focused on nutritional profile, may be recommended to focus on antioxidant capacity followed by digestion along with interactions of protein-starch interactions to optimise the formulations.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    Edible coating of blueberries enriched with New Zealand native plant leaf extracts: A novel application : A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Peddisetti, Sahiti
    Edible coatings with functional active ingredients could be a promising approach to the shelf-life of fresh blueberries, while preserving the fruit post-harvest quality, texture and nutritional content. Fruit appearance, texture and flavour are important quality traits that affect consumer choice. Kawakawa and horopito are two native plants in Aotearoa New Zealand, of significant cultural importance and have gained popularity for their traditional medicinal properties, and recently, culinary applications. This study investigated antimicrobial and physiochemical properties of blueberries coated with carboxymethylcellulose-based edible coating containing 0.2% concentration of kawakawa, horopito and kawakawa-horopito leaf extracts during a 10-day shelf-life study. The physiochemical post-harvest properties were evaluated, including fruit weight loss, colorimetric analysis, firmness, and total soluble solids concentration. The microbiological activity was analysed through counting the colony forming units for yeast and mould, Gram-negative bacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The coated blueberries significantly (p ≤ 0.05) preserved the physiochemical properties compared to uncoated blueberries, but there was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) among treatments of kawakawa, horopito and kawakawa-horopito leaf extracts. There was no antimicrobial activity detected by the coated bluberries. Overall, this study indicates the potential for leaf extracts from New Zealand native plants and their role in active edible coatings of fruits that are highly perishable. Future work investigating the quantification of piperine and polygodial, present in kawakawa and horopito, respectively, would provide useful insights in understanding the functionality of the leaf extracts in the edible coatings.
  • PublicationEmbargo
    The liquid milk market in Sri Lanka - Analysis of demand and consumer preference : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Sivakumar, Sivashankar
    In Sri Lanka, domestic milk production has increased considerably in the last decade, but fresh milk consumption has been decreasing annually. Before the advent of open economic policies in 1977, 80 per cent of the country's requirements were fulfilled through domestic milk. Now it only accounts for 45 per cent of domestic requirements, with the balance being met through the importation of dairy products. A particular feature of Sri Lanka is that milk powder consumption has increased dramatically and almost 95 per cent of imports are in the form of powders. The current economic crisis in Sri Lanka has increased the prices for imported food products, particularly milk powder, due to the depreciation of Sri Lankan currency value against the U.S. dollar. Milk powder, which was earlier easily accessible and affordable, is now difficult to access and expensive. Liquid milk is seen to have nutritional advantages over powdered milk and there also appear to be opportunities to replace imported milk powder with domestically produced liquid milk in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study investigates the demand for milk products in Sri Lanka and consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the key attributes of liquid milk. The first objective of this study was to estimate the demand for disaggregated milk products, such as fresh liquid milk, milk powder, and flavoured liquid milk. Multi-stage budgeting approach and a QUAIDS model were used to estimate the price and expenditure elasticities. Empirical evidence from demand estimation revealed that households are price sensitive to all the disaggregated milk products considered in this study. Specifically, households are more sensitive to price changes in fresh liquid milk than milk powder and flavored liquid milk. Moreover, the findings of this study revealed that all the disaggregated milk products considered are substitutes for each other, and a strong substitution relationship exists between milk powder and fresh liquid milk. The second objective of this study used a choice experiment approach to estimate the respondents’ preferences and WTP for liquid milk attributes in Sri Lanka. This study focuses on five attributes of liquid milk—milk fat, processing technology, food safety measures, packaging, and price. A random parameter logit model was used to estimate WTP for the attributes of liquid milk since consumers' preferences are heterogeneous. The findings of this study revealed that respondents on average prefer low-fat milk to whole milk, pasteurization and UHT processing technology to no processing, an increase in food safety measures to no change, and reusable packaging to single-service packaging. They are also willing to pay more for these attributes. The results revealed that preferences for milk attributes are heterogeneous, indicating that consumers with different sociodemographic characteristics prefer different levels of attributes. The findings of this study will enable policymakers, marketers, and milk processing companies to understand the demand for milk products and consumer preferences for liquid milk attributes while providing information to develop products with varying attribute levels to meet consumers’ expectations and enhance competitiveness. Notably, policymakers can utilize elasticity estimates to formulate appropriate policies to improve the domestic dairy industry as well as the overall well-being and nutrition of the Sri Lankan population.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Soulscapes: An exploration of the relationship between wilderness landscapes and Soul wellbeing : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Hansen, Erika
    The idea that wilderness landscapes can facilitate connection to Soul has been recognised by scholars in various disciplines. There is also a longstanding history of ancient cultural practices that utilise the therapeutic elements of nature in natural landscapes to support and sustain spiritual wellbeing. As in theoretical perspectives such as the biophilia hypothesis, human biology requires direct connection with the natural environment. However, recent generations have seen urbanisation and technological advancements sever connections between many people and the natural world. Consequently, the contemporary societal issue ‘nature deficit disorder’ is a sign of the times. In response, this research explores the relationship between wilderness, traditional practices facilitated by the landscape, and the wellbeing of Soul in a secular sense. An interdisciplinary review of the literature identified key themes associated with the pursuit of Soul wellbeing, including Soul work, wilderness spirituality, sublime landscapes, transcendent experiences, social connection and solitude, classical elements, genius loci, aspects of pilgrimage, and thermal conditioning practices: cold immersion and sauna. These themes were threaded together and grounded in the practical context with case studies of international and Aotearoa New Zealand based expeditions and retreats that offer aspects of these topics. At the intersection of many schools of thought identified in this research lies a particular type of experiential landscape that facilitates Soul wellbeing, which I have termed ‘Soulscape’. The research findings suggest that a Soulscape is a sublime wilderness landscape that provides a setting for Soul work practices that seek to reconnect people with nature and their true nature. This research may be thought of as a pilgrimage towards the discovery of, ‘what is a Soulscape?’ which illuminates the significance and relevance of Soul wellbeing to the realm of landscape architecture.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Effects of Zelp, an NZ Kelp product, on pasture germination and production compared to a processed nutrient solution : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Back, Samuel
    Regenerative agriculture (RA) has be every more popular due to the consumers change towards more sustainable products. One of RA agriculture practice is to turn away from processed nutrient fertiliser and use organic fertiliser. One organic fertiliser that has been use is seaweed extract based. Seaweed extracts are suggested to improve soil health, plant health & disease resistance and to increase germination. This is said to be through, natural plant growth hormones, micronutrients, complex polysaccharides (sugars), antibacterial/antiviral properties, chelating agents and alginates. However, due to the very limited research conducted especially using common pastures in New Zealand pastoral systems it is difficult to understand if the seaweed extracts do what they suggest. Four common pasture species were experimented using Zelp an seaweed extract plant promotor from NZ Kelp and a nutrient solution which contains equivalent amounts of nutrients. There were 2 different experiments conducted, germination test and a pot trial where Zelp and the nutrient solution were compared to each other. There were two separate germination test, one using Zelp and the other using the nutrient solution. Both tests were conducted over 15 days in an incubator set to 20C. The pot trial was completed for 3.5 months under glasshouse conditions. At the competition of the pot trial shoot and root yields measurements were completed. The key findings from the two-germination tests completed was that lucerne seed had a greater germination % for Zelp than the nutrient solution, with a 10% increase in total mean germination. Subterranean clover and Italian ryegrass had a significant greater germination % to the control and commercially recommend rate of Zelp (2 kg/ha) than the two higher rates of Zelp (4, and 8 Kg/ha). For the pot trial there were four key findings; both Italian ryegrass and cocksfoot had an increase in shoot fresh weight when using the nutrient solution compared to Zelp. Italian ryegrass also had a greater response in the shoots dry weight using nutrient solution. The final key finding for the pot trial was that Italian ryegrass shoots: roots ratio was significantly greater when using Zelp. Only lucerne had a greater response to Zelp compared to the nutrient solution. This is an interesting result, as it was expected that if Zelp had positive effects on one species that it would have positive effects on all of the species tested. This therefore, indicates that the effect of Zelp on seed germination % is species specific, or that the mechanism involved causing this result is species specific. Nutrient solution had greater yields in the grasses. This could be because of grasses requiring nitrogen to increase growth unlike the legumes which fix atmospheric nitrogen. Another possibility is that the nitrogen and nutrients in the nutrient solution was more readily available compared to the organic nitrogen in Kelp which is the nutrients found in Zelp. Based on these findings further research is required to fully understand Zelp’s contribution to New Zealand’s pastoral systems and if seaweed based fertiliser can be compared to the processed nutrients.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Isolation and genomic sequencing of foliar endophytic communities across a growing season in wild Lycium ferocissimum: A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science with Honours at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Gray, Hamish Owen
    A total of 15 endophytic genera were genomically identified in this study by culturing methods across three leaf tissue sampling dates, spanning from February to April 2023 in which 96 leaves were sampled. Identification was done using a PCR assay with primers specific to fungi and bacteria, followed by sequencing and identification of the PCR products. Of these 15 genera identified, 12 were not previously known to be associated with any Lycium species. Being novel research, all 15 genera identified were previously unreported as being present in L. ferocissimum. 13 were fungal and 2 were bacterial. Endophyte composition was dynamic, but overall diversity did not change considerably. The dominant genera in this study were Alternaria (50%) and Stemphylium (30%), with Neodidymelliopsis (7%) and Cladosporium (4%) making up the only 4 genera present on all 3 sampling dates. A qPCR assay was used to test each sample leaf used in this study for the presence of CaLso. The presence of CaLso in leaf samples increased from the February sampling group (1.7% positive) to April (33%), despite a considerable decrease in TPP population presence on the plants in that same period. Unexpectedly, the control group of asymptomatic leaves, also sampled in April, had the highest relative frequency of positive leaf samples (44.5%).
  • PublicationRestricted
    Impact of regenerative agriculture on radiation use efficiency of grassland production: A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science with Honours at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Noelte, L.
    Regenerative agriculture has received more and more attention within recent years and has been promoted as a method to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon storage. Furthermore it is described as a way to increase biodiversity, provide a solution for declining health of freshwater ecosystems and water quality, and improve the wellbeing of farmers and communities. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate the effectiveness of regenerative agriculture for improving the radiation (light) use efficiency of grassland production. A dataset of grassland radiation-use efficiency and explanatory variables was collected from 4.5 months (15 February to 28 June 2023) of a new farmlet-scale experiment, the “Regenerative Agriculture Dryland Experiment” (RADE) at Lincoln University, New Zealand. The experiment compared two systems of grassland-based sheep production, a regenerative agriculture system comprising species-rich pastures and long-rotation grazing and a conventional agriculture system comprising standard pastures and grazing techniques, across soils with low and high inputs of phosphorus fertiliser. The four treatments were established as four 2-ha farmlets of 20 paddocks between 10 December 2021 and 16 March 2023.Incoming and transmitted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were measured with a SunScan for every plot before and after every defoliation and once a month for all plots concurrently. Samples of pasture mass of each plot were taken by the RADE team. Radiation use efficiency was calculated from accumulated yield and intercepted PAR. Yield, intercepted PAR, radiation use efficiency, farm cover, post grazing pasture mass, and proportion of dead and weed of biomass and nitrogen content was subjected to analyses of variance and a linear regression analysis for recovery of pasture was undertaken. The results indicate that, after the four and a half month, the regenerative system accumulated a lower yield than the conventionalsystem (2347 kg DM/ha vs. 3354 kg/ha), a greater accumulated intercepted PAR (612 MJ/m2 vs. 530 MJ/m2 vs.), and a lower mean radiation use efficiency (0.389 g/MJ vs. 0.646 g/MJ). Furthermore, it was found that, in the regenerative plots, post grazing pasture mass was higher by 943 kg DM/ha, and average farm cover was higher throughout the measuring period, but rate of recovery was not different (19.74 kg DM/ha/day) when compared to the conventional pastures. A higher proportion of dead material (0.35 vs. 0.24), but lower proportion of weeds (0.03 vs. 0.013) were found in the regenerative pasture. Nitrogen content of pasture dry weight was lower for the regenerative system (2.44% vs 3.07%). Differences between fertility levels and system-fertility interaction were found to be non-significant. The higher radiation use efficiency of the conventionally farmed plots in the RADE gave rise to the hypothesis that the rotational grazing system typically found in New Zealand agriculture is operating at a near optimum and cannot be compared to most livestock or cropping systems within other countries. However, further research is required to determine if regenerative systems could provide a higher level of yield stability for high-stress environments, such as the drought prone east coast region of New Zealand. Furthermore, there are opportunities for research on animal performance, soil carbon sequestration and on the long term implications of these multispecies regeneratively managed pastures.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    The effects of the ‘SLICK’ allele of the prolactin receptor gene on the cold stress response of dairy heifers : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science with Honours at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Robb, Luke
    Animal welfare concerns such as heat stress is becoming a more pressing issue under the increasing variability in climatic events in the temperate New Zealand dairy industry. Assessment of heat stress and management strategies are key areas of research, for which the SLICK allele is a potentital genetic management strategy for heat stress in New Zealand. However the interaction between this allele and cold stress is largely unknown. This research was undertaken to investigate the effects of the SLICK allele on the cold stress response of dairy heifers. Three groups of heifers representing the national herd genetics (Control) or, SLICK, and Non-SLICK, were investigated over 29 days between 13th June and 11th July in an outside grazing trial to identify any behavioural, or physiological responses to periods of natural cold stress. Control and SLICK calves (n= 6 and 7 respectively) wore SensOor accelerometers to monitor behaviour, and rectal temperatures were recorded on potential cold stress days. The frequency of cold stress days, which were determined as wind chill temperature falling below 0°C (dry) or 15.5°C (wet), were 7 days out of 29. SLICK heifers had 5% lower liveweight than control or non SLICK (221.9 vs 233.9kg, P = 0.62). However, there was no difference between treatments for liveweight gain, rectal temperature, rumination, active, or high active time. SLICK calves spent more time inactive compared with control calves (466 vs 426 minutes/day, p < 0.008). An interaction between treatment and date for eating time (minutes/day, p <0.05) showed that at high pasture allocation SLICK spent less time eating than control calves, but similar eating time under restricted pasture allocation. Differences in coat characteristics suggested SLICK heifers had an improved insulative effect compared with Non-SLICK heifers. SLICK heifers had a greater mean fibre diameter ( 36 vs 30, p < 0.005), medulation percentage (28.18 vs 22.3 %, p = 0.047), and greater percentage of coarse edge fibres (21.8 ± 1.79% vs 14.0 ± 0.90%, P = 0.005). Overall, the results suggest that under mild levels of cold stress conditions there are small differences in response to cold stress between heifers carrying the SLICK allele compared to heifers which do not carry the SLICK allele. Control heifers appeared to respond to cold stress through increased activity and increased eating time, whereas SLICK heifers appeared to favour inactivity and increasing insulative coat to conserve energy. However without strong temperature, or growth differences it suggests that the cold challenege is not strong enough to observe any different welfare concerns in SLICK carrier heifers.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Measuring the flammability of common agricultural plant species across the year and understanding the perceptions of rural landholders towards fire risk in Canterbury, New Zealand : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Agriculture Science (Honours) at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023) Woods, Georgina
    Anthropogenic drivers of climate change are altering the nature of fires globally. Hotter, drier and windier weather conditions are contributing to lengthening of fire seasons and making ignitions easier in many parts of the world, including Canterbury, New Zealand. The looming threat of increasingly destructive wildfire events highlights the need for further research into wildfire management. One tool that has the potential to reduce or stop the spread of wildfire is green firebreaks. To understand which plant species are good candidates for green firebreaks, we empirically test their flammability, i.e. their capacity to ignite and sustain a fire. However, there is generally a lack of information of flammability on plant species found in agricultural landscapes. Additionally, flammability is potentially affected by plant physiology and phenology changes throughout the year, though again research on this is scarce. Filling these research gaps will benefit rural landholders, iwi, governments and ultimately assist with reconfiguring rural landscapes. While it is vital to produce such information it is also important to ensure such information is reaching those who need it. Hence, it is necessary to understand the perceived fire risk of rural landholders in Canterbury. This will help in indicating whether plant flammability research will be taken up and how to create science communication strategies which are effective and efficient. This dissertation intends to address both of these knowledge gaps by testing the shoot flammability of common agricultural pasture, crop and weed species that are found in agricultural landscapes in Canterbury, New Zealand across different times of the year and also investigate the perceptions that Canterbury rural landholders have towards fire risk on their properties. The results showed that lucerne (Medicago sativa) was consistently the least flammable species, whereas wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were consistently the most flammable species. Half of the species tested did vary in flammability across sampling periods throughout the year, while the other half did not. This suggests that species- specific plant flammability research is critical when assessing the suitability of species for green firebreaks. The species identified as being low in flammability year round were: lucerne (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium); these would be good candidates for green firebreaks in agricultural landscapes. The survey found that the mean annual fire risk rating of rural landholders did not change across system type (dairy, cropping, or sheep and beef) or land type (flat, rolling-moderate hill country, steep). Furthermore, the mean annual fire rating was similar across all rural landholders, most consistently being scored as moderate risk. Of the sheep and beef farmers, the seasonal annual fire risk rating did not change across land type and showed consistent trends across each season with fire risk perceived to be highest in summer and lowest in winter. This suggests that as fire risk is perceived similarly across system and land type of the surveyed farmers, plant flammability research can be communicated in a streamlined approach to stakeholders, with relevant changes made where necessary (e.g. certain plant species will be grown in some systems more commonly than others). My study has identified species that are good candidates for green firebreaks and that rural landholders are aware of fire risk on their properties, with the seasonal risk rating of sheep and beef farmers coinciding with the fire season in New Zealand. Overall, this will help to redesign agricultural landscapes and take appropriate precaution at times of the year where fire risk is higher than others, depending on the system type.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Richard Serra as landscape architecture: How the sculpture practice of Serra may evolve landscape architecture in Aōtearoa : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2023-07) Driscoll-Forbes, Alexander
    This dissertation explores the potential of sculpture and sculptural processes as catalysts for advancing landscape architecture in Aotearoa, with a particular focus on the groundbreaking work of post-modernist American sculptor Richard Serra. While this approach represents a unique angle within contemporary landscape architecture academia, the research grounds itself by examining historical periods where the connection between sculpture and landscape was inseparable. Examples such as Göbekli Tepe in Turkey and Ginkaku-ji in Japan demonstrate how both practices contributed distinct qualities to the surrounding landscape, reflecting the worldviews of their creators. To contextualize the study in a contemporary setting, the research draws on art critic and theorist Rosalind Krauss's seminal essay ‘Sculpture in the Expanded Field’ (1979) to explore the relationship between sculpture and landscape as they evolved beyond modernism. To investigate Serra's practice within the realm of landscape architecture, a multi-modal research approach is adopted. Drawing from established landscape architectural studies, the research employs various tools and methods to address key questions related to Serra's work in the context of landscape architecture. These approaches include biographic research and design drawing to gain an in-depth understanding of Serra's unique practice. Additionally, interpretive and descriptive design critiques explore how Serra's work relates to landscape architecture. First-hand, experientially based design critiques further examine how Serra's practice extends into the landscape architecture domain. Finally, the research considers the potential attributes Serra's practice may bring to landscape architecture in Aotearoa by analysing two NZILA award-winning projects. The outcomes of this research are manifold. First, the study reveals how Serra's practice is influenced by the logic of process and materiality, forming the basis for a process-oriented approach across various mediums. Utilizing Serra's ‘Verblist’ (1967), the research delves into an embodied approach, expanding the notion of 'landscape' and drawing parallels with Tim Ingold's concept of 'taskscape.' This perspective contrasts the ocular-centric view prevalent in landscape architecture and emphasizes the idea that "through living in it, the landscape becomes a part of us, just as we are a part of it" (Ingold, 1993, p. 154). Second, the research demonstrates how Serra's sculptural practice consistently extends into the landscape. Through the analysis and design critique of his works, the study uncovers a practice that explores body, space, and time, engaging viewers through site-specificity, context, and materiality. This emphasis on experiential engagement aligns with phenomenological philosophy and an embodied perspective of landscape. Third, the research establishes that Serra's sculptural ethos and the qualities inherent in his extensive practice—such as body, space, time, process, site-specificity, context, and materiality—have the potential to enrich contemporary landscape architecture practices in Aotearoa. This insight specifically pertains to enhancing the utility and design experience of existing and future landscapes. And finally, the study provides valuable insights into how landscape architecture, influenced by sculpture or other art disciplines, can evolve into a distinct and recognizable form. The interdisciplinary, multi-modal approach employed in this research can serve as a model for future investigations within landscape architectural academia, offering numerous benefits to the field.