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dc.contributor.authorIlyas, Hafiz
dc.contributor.authorSafa, Majeed
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Alison
dc.contributor.authorRauf, S.
dc.contributor.authorPangborn, Marvin C.
dc.identifier.citationIlyas, H.M.A., Safa, M., Bailey, A., Rauf, S., & Pangborn, M. (2019). The carbon footprint of energy consumption in pastoral and barn dairy farming systems: A case study from Canterbury, New Zealand. Sustainability, 11(17), 4809. doi:10.3390/su11174809
dc.description.abstractDairy farming is constantly evolving to more intensive systems of management, which involve more consumption of energy inputs. The consumption of these energy inputs in dairy farming contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to production of farm inputs (such as fertilizer, feed supplements). The main purpose of this research study was to evaluate energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, the carbon footprint, of pastoral and barn dairy systems located in Canterbury, New Zealand. The carbon footprints were estimated based on direct and indirect energy sources. The study results showed that, on average, the carbon footprints of pastoral and barn dairy systems were 2857 kgC0₂ ha⁻¹ and 3379 kgC0₂ ha⁻¹, respectively. For the production of one tonne of milk solids, the carbon footprint was 1920 kgC0₂ tMS⁻¹ and 2129 kgC0₂ tMS⁻¹ respectively. The carbon emission difference between the two systems indicates that the barn system has 18% and 11% higher carbon footprint than the pastoral system, both per hectare of farm area and per tonne of milk solids, respectively. The greater carbon footprint of the barn system was due to more use of imported feed supplements, machinery usage and fossil fuel (diesel and petrol) consumption for on-farm activities.en
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - MDPI -
dc.rights© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.subjectenergy consumptionen
dc.subjectcarbon footprintsen
dc.subjectpastoral dairy farming system (PDFs)en
dc.subjectbarn dairy farming system (BDFs)en
dc.subjectNew Zealanden
dc.titleThe carbon footprint of energy consumption in pastoral and barn dairy farming systems: A case study from Canterbury, New Zealanden
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln University
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Agribusiness and Commerce
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Land Management and Systems
dc.subject.anzsrc0701 Agriculture, Land and Farm Managementen
dc.subject.anzsrc070107 Farming Systems Researchen
dc.subject.anzsrc050101 Ecological Impacts of Climate Changeen
dc.subject.anzsrc070101 Agricultural Land Managementen
dc.subject.anzsrc0702 Animal Productionen
pubs.notesArticle 4809en
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Agribusiness and Commerce
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Agribusiness and Commerce/LAMS
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/PE20
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/QE18
pubs.publication-statusPublished onlineen

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