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dc.contributor.authorIrvin, N. A.
dc.date.accessioned2009-07-09T02:33:31Z
dc.date.available2009-07-09T02:33:31Z
dc.date.issued1999
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1111
dc.description.abstractThis study investigated understorey management in Canterbury, New Zealand, apple orchards for the enhancement of populations of Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Cameron) (Braconidae) for leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) biological control. The first objective was to determine the influence of understorey plants on the abundance of D. tasmanica and leafroller parasitism, and to investigate the mechanisms behind this influence. The second was to determine the most suitable understorey plants in terms of their ability to enhance parasitoid abundance, leafroller parasitism, parasitoid longevity, parasitoid fecundity and its ability to not benefit leafroller. Results from three consecutive field trials showed that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv), and, to a lesser extent, broad bean (Vicia faba L.), enhanced parasitoid abundance and leafroller parasitism. The mechanisms behind the effects of understorey plants had previously been unexplored. However, results here showed that it was the flowers or the buckwheat that 'attracted' the parasitoid to the plant and not the shelter, aphids or microclimate that the plant may also provide. Providing flowering plants in the orchard understorey also increased immigration of parasitoids and enhanced parasitoids and enhanced parasitoid longevity and fecundity in the laboratory. In contrast, the understorey plants had no influence on the female:male ratio of D. tasmanica. Although coriander enhanced leafroller parasitism three-fold in field experiments compared with controls, it failed to enhance the longevity of both sexes of D. tasmanica in the laboratory compared with water-only. Broad bean significantly enhanced parasitoid abundance three-fold and significantly increased parasitism from 0% to 75% compared with the controls on one leafroller release date. However, laboratory trials showed that of male D. tasmancia but it did not enhance female longevity. Also, female D. tasmanica foraging on broad bean produced a total of only three parasitoid cocoons, but this result was based on an overall 6.5% survival of larvae to pupae or to parasitoid cocoon. Furthermore, results suggested that extrafloral nectar secretion decreased as the plants matured. Phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.) did not significantly enhance parasitism rate in the field compared with controls, and numbers of D. tasmanica captured by suction sampling were significantly lower in phacelia treatments compared with alyssum, buckwheat and control plots. Also, laboratory experiments showed that survival of D. tasmanica on phacelia flowers was equivalent to that on water-only and significantly lower than on buckwheat. These results suggest that phacelia does not provide nectar to D. tasmanica, only pollen, and therefore is not a suitable understorey plant for D. tasmanica enhancement in orchards. Buckwheat and alyssum showed the most potential as understorey plants for the enhancement of natural enemies. Buckwheat not only increased numbers of D. tasmanica seven-fold, but also increased numbers of beneficial lacewings (Micromus tasmaniae (Walker)) and hover flies (Syrphidae) captured on yellow sticky traps compared with the controls. It significantly increased leafroller parasitism by D. tasmanica from 0% to 86% compared with the controls (on one date only), and in the laboratory enhanced D. tasmanica longevity and increased fecundity compared with water-only. Similarly, alyssum significantly increased parasitism rate compared with controls, and two-fold more D. tasmanica were suction sampled in these plots compared with controls. It also enhanced longevity of both sexes of D. tasmanica compared with water, and showed the most favourable characteristics in terms of being of no benefit to leafrollers. This is because it was not preferred over apple by leafroller larvae and when they were forced to feed on it, it caused high mortality (94.3%) and low pupal weight (15 mg). Furthermore, alyssum did not enhance the number of fertile eggs produced by adult leafrollers compared with water only. However, further research is required to address the overall effect of buckwheat and alyssum on crop production and orchard management, including effects on fruit yield and quality, frost risk, disease incidence, soil quality, weeds and other pests. Also, research into the ability of these plants to survive in the orchard with little maintenance, and into the optimal sowing rates, would be useful. Sampling natural populations of leafroller within each treatment showed that damage from leafrollers and the number of leafroller larvae were respectively 20.3% and 29.3% lower in the flowering treatments compared with the controls. Furthermore, field trials showed up to a six-fold increase in leafroller pupae in controls compared with buckwheat and alyssum. This suggests that increasing leafroller parasitism rate from understorey management in orchards will translate into lower pest populations, although neither larval numbers/damage nor pupal numbers differed significantly between treatments. Trapping D. tasmanica at a gradient of distances showed that this parasitoid travels into rows adjacent to buckwheat plots, indicating that growers may be able to sow flowering plants in every second or third row of the orchard, and still enhance leafroller biocontrol while minimising the adverse effects of a cover crop. Sowing buckwheat and alyssum in orchard understoreys may enhance biological control of apple pests in organic apple production and reduce the number of insect growth regulators applied in IFP programmes. However, the challenge still remains to investigate whether conservation biological control can reduce leafroller populations below economic thresholds.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.rights.urihttps://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/page/rights
dc.subjectleafrolleren
dc.subjectTortricidaeen
dc.subjectparasitoiden
dc.subjectDolichogenidea tasmanicaen
dc.subjectunderstorey managementen
dc.subjectapple orcharden
dc.subjectenhancementen
dc.subjectPhacelia tanacetifoliaen
dc.subjectFagopyrum esculentumen
dc.subjectCoriandrum sativumen
dc.subjectLobularia maritimaen
dc.subjectVicia faba L.en
dc.subjectconservation biological controlen
dc.titleUnderstorey management for the enhancement of populations of a leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) parasitoid (Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Cameron)) in Canterbury, New Zealand apple orchardsen
dc.typeThesisen
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270700 Ecology and Evolution::270703 Terrestrial ecologyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300300 Horticulture::300303 Plant protection (pests, diseases and weeds)en
lu.thesis.supervisorWratten, Steve
lu.thesis.supervisorChapman, Bruce
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Ecologyen


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