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dc.contributor.authorIposu, Samsideen O.en
dc.date.accessioned2007-09-18T01:24:23Z
dc.date.issued2007en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/115
dc.description.abstractThe series of experiments described in this thesis were designed to investigate the role of suckling or late weaning in the response of young lambs to nematode infection. All experiments were conducted outdoors with grazing animals and no supplementation but for suckled groups of lambs whose counterparts were weaned to ryegrass – white clover swards. The parasite of interest was mainly Teladorsagia circumcincta solely but with mixed infection of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in one instance. In Chapter 3 (first experiment), the hypothesis that milk per se may have a direct effect on nematode development, rather than an indirect effect through enhancement of host immunity by superior nutrient supply was tested. Sixty, twinborn lambs were used, allocated to one of eight groups formed by either dosing lambs from 42 days of age or not with the equivalent of 1000 or 250 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹ until five days before necropsy, while a twin was either weaned at 39 days of age, suckled as single or twin until necropsy on day 84. The possibility that weaning one of a twin set onto pasture in close proximity to the ewe would cause abnormal ewe and lamb behaviour was tested by replicating the work in twins maintained as twins but in which one twin received equivalent of 250 and the other 1000 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹. This showed no abnormal ewe nursing or lamb suckling behaviour as a result of weaning a twin in a set. Relatively low faecal egg counts (FEC) and a two to three fold lower worm burdens suggest suckling could reduce larval establishment. Inability to detect peripheral titres of immunoglobulins supports this conclusion. An intra worm-population regulation of T. circumcincta, indicated by a pattern of greater egg-laying by a numerically smaller but physiologically better developed nematode population in suckled lambs measured in eggs 'in utero' and worm length made interpretation of FEC difficult. Suckling significantly improved weight gain and carcass weights, but early weaning did not reduce resilience to infection. In Chapter 4 (second experiment), 40 pairs of twin lambs, average age of 39 days, were either infected with the equivalent of 1000 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹ or not, while one twin was weaned and the other allowed to continue suckling. Necropsy was carried out on groups of five and six lambs from each of the uninfected and infected treatments, respectively, at mean age of 84, 112, and on six lambs from each group at 140 days of age. This serial slaughter allowed further confirmation of the hypothesis in Chapter 3 but also investigated the long-term effect of suckling on resistance or resilience of lambs at the trial when immune responses were anticipated to be developing. An in vitro direct larval challenge (IVDC) study, to monitor larval establishment, was carried out on tissue explants from necropsied lambs. Suckled lambs consistently showed lower FEC (P < 0.05) and worm burdens (P < 0.05) at every phase of the trial. Within the infected groups, % in vitro larval rejection suggested earlier immune responses in the weaned lambs by day 84, which was not consistent with lower worm burdens in suckled lambs but appeared similar in the subsequent necropsies. Lambs continued to show better growth due to suckling while weaning did not reduce the resilience of lambs confirming observations in Chapter 3. The immunoglobulin profile suggested the commencement of immune responses in lambs from the period after the 84th day necropsy, with significantly greater (P < 0.01) IgA titre in the infected groups, and the suckled lambs towards the end of the trial on day 140. A vaccinating effect of early exposure to parasites was coincidentally revealed as a result of unintentional pasture larval contamination, seen in suckled non-infected lambs shedding fewer eggs and harbouring fewer worms during the later necropsies compared with their weaned non-infected counterparts. In Chapter 5 (third trial), 93 pairs of twin lambs, 47 pairs of which received a vaccinating mixed infection of T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis larvae (60 L₃ / kg W / d) at ratio 40:60, respectively during the period 36 – 103 days of age, were either weaned early on day 51 or later on day 108. All lambs were drenched on day 108 and groups received challenge infections from day 116, at same rate with the vaccinating infection, or not, which ceased five days before respective necropsies. Necropsies were carried out on selected lambs on days 108, 184 and 218. The direct effect of milk on larval establishment appeared to feature only in the T. circumcincta populations on slaughter day 108. The long-term benefit of late weaning for development of resistance was conditional on lambs receiving the vaccinating infection, and appeared to be more pronounced in the small intestine, reflected by a greater reduction of T. colubriformis populations in that organ than of T. circumcincta populations in the abomasum. A negative consequence of enhanced immune response was the suggestion of an increased metabolic cost in reduced performance of lambs. In conclusion, the work provides support to the hypotheses that: (a.) suckling may reduce the establishment of nematode larvae through the direct effect of milk, (b.) may enhance rapid development of host immunity to infection, and (c.) it further suggests that lack of larval experience during suckling may have long term negative implications for host resistance. Finally, it suggests that milk may play little role in the enhancement of host resilience to infection and, on the contrary, that additional metabolic cost may be associated with a more rapid development of immunity resulting from larval challenge while suckling.en
dc.format.extent1-174en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjectlambsen
dc.subjectweaningen
dc.subjectsucklingen
dc.subjectmilken
dc.subjectresistanceen
dc.subjectresilienceen
dc.subjectnematodeen
dc.subjectTeladorsagia circumcinctaen
dc.subjectTrichostrongylus colubriformisen
dc.subjectIgAen
dc.subjectIgMen
dc.subjectantibodyen
dc.subjectabomasumen
dc.subjectsmall intestine in vitro larval rejectionen
dc.titleEffect of suckling on response to nematode parasites in young lambsen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300400 Animal Production::300405 Animal production (pests and pathogens)en
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unit/LU/AFSCen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/AFSC
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
dc.publisher.placeChristchurchen


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