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dc.contributor.authorGreer, Andrew W.
dc.date.accessioned2007-05-30T03:12:50Z
dc.date.issued2005
dc.date.submitted2005en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/11
dc.description.abstractThis thesis describes a series of three experiments designed to estimate the nutritional cost of the immune response to the gastrointestinal nematodes Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep. For each experiment, animals were allocated hierarchically by liveweight into one of four groups that were either infected (group IF), similarly infected and concurrently immuno-suppressed with weekly intramuscular injections of 1.3mg kg liveweight (LW)⁻¹ of methylprednisolone acetate (group ISIF), immunosuppressed only (group IS) or remained as controls (group C). Body composition of all animals was estimated using x-ray computer tomography prior to infection and at the conclusion of each study with bodyweight and faecal nematode egg counts (FEC; eggs gram⁻¹ of fresh faeces (epg)) measured along with blood samples taken for the determination of levels of serum proteins, phosphate and antibodies. In the first trial (Chapter 3), the nutritional cost of both the acquisition and maintenance of immunity to gastro-intestinal nematodes was investigated using immunologically naive 5-month-old lambs and immunologically competent 17-month-old ewes during infection with 2,000 and 4,000 L3 infective T. colubriformis larvae d⁻¹, respectively (80 L3 T. colubriformis larvae kgLW⁻¹ d⁻¹). Profiles of FEC and comparative worm burdens at slaughter indicated an effective immune response was maintained in IF ewes and developed in IF lambs while successfully suppressed in both ISIF lambs and ISIF ewes and was confirmed by serum antibody titres. The typical reduction in voluntary feed intake as a consequence of infection was observed in IF lambs (0.30, p<0.001) but not in IF ewes, ISIF lambs or ISIF ewes, and appeared to be associated with L3 IgA. Gross efficiency of use of metabolizable energy (ME) for net energy (NE) deposition was reduced by 0.20 in lambs during acquisition of immunity and by 0.16 in ewes maintaining an established immunity. Infection in immuno-suppressed animals reduced efficiency by 0.05 and 0.15 for lambs and ewes. These findings allowed the hypothesis that the reduction in feed intake and nutrient utilization in young parasitized sheep is caused by physiological signalling associated with the acquisition phase of the host immune response to infection, rather than simply the damage caused by the parasite per se. The second trial (Chapter 4) investigated the influence of metabolizable protein (MP) supply on the metabolic disturbances associated with the acquisition phase of the immune response during infection with 2,000 L3 T. colubriformis d⁻¹. Groups of lambs were offered either a low protein (L; 62g MP kgDM⁻¹) or high protein diet (H; 95g MP kgDM⁻¹). Patterns of total daily egg excretion indicated that an effective immune response was developed in HIF, but not LIF, HISIF nor LISF and was confirmed by comparative worm burdens. The proportionate reduction in feed intake in immunologically normal animals was reduced through the provision of additional protein, being 0.12 in HIF and 0.23 in LIF. Regardless of diet, infection did not cause a reduction in feed intake in immuno-suppressed animals (p>0.05). Infection proportionately reduced the gross efficiency of ME utilization in immunologically normal animals by 0.23 in HIF (p=0.09) and by 0.51 in LIF (p=0.01), but not in immuno-suppressed animals. Immuno-suppression did not suppress serum L3 IgA levels in seven of the eight HISIF and four of the eight LISIF animals. Furthermore, only four out of the eight immunologically normal animals from both the HIF and LIF groups displayed an L3 IgA response. Consequently, regardless of immunosuppression treatment, animals were termed as IgA responders (HR or LR) or non-responders (HN or LN). Feed intake was proportionately reduced from day 22 by 0.15 in HR (p=0.03) and by 0.32 in LR (p=0.01), but was not significantly reduced in HN or LN. Gross efficiency of ME utilization was significantly reduced for LN animals only, being proportionately 0.59 (p<0.01). These findings allowed the conclusion that additional MP reduced the consequence of immunological signalling that was displayed in reduced feed intake and in nutrient utilization, both of which appeared to be associated with an IgA response. It is hypothesized that the lessening of nutritional disturbance observed in high protein and immuno-suppressed animals could be a consequence of altered physiological signalling during the immunological cascade. The third trial (Chapter 5) utilized lambs infected with the abomasal parasite T. circumcincta to explore the possibility that the reduction in feed intake and nutrient utilization is a universal phenomenon of the acquisition phase of the immune response to nematode parasites inhabiting different organs along the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, immunological changes at the site of parasite infestation in the abomasal mucosa were measured from serial biopsy tissue samples taken from a further twelve animals that were surgically fitted with an abomasal cannula and either infected (CIF) or concurrently infected and immuno-suppressed as described previously (CISIF). The development of immunity in IF animals was accompanied by a 0.17 proportional decrease in feed intake between days 15 to 28 of infection (p<0.05) and a 0.20 proportional reduction in nutrient utilization (p=0.07), none of which were observed in ISIF animals. While FEC and worm burdens indicated successful immunosuppression in ISIF animals, both serum IgA and total antibody production were not reduced. The development of immunity in CIF was reflected in an increase in both mast cells and globule leukocytes in serial abomasal tissue biopsies, both of which were reduced in CISIF (p<0.01 for both). In serial biopsy tissue, immuno-suppression did prevent a rise in tissue IgA that was apparent in CIF animals (p<0.01) although these changes were not reflected in serum IgA levels. It appears that the alleviation of the reduction in feed intake and nutrient utilization in young lambs through the use of corticosteroid induced immuno-suppression may be a universal phenomenon for both intestinal and abomasal parasites, but the association with and/or role of IgA during infection with T. circumcincta is unclear. In summary, the reduction in feed intake and nutrient utilization in sheep during infection with both the abomasal nematode T. circumcincta and the small intestine nematode T. colubriformis appears to be associated with a component(s) of the acquisition phase of the host immune response, rather than, as conventionally assumed, the direct mechanical damage of the parasite per se. It is hypothesised that the nutritional disturbance as a consequence of infection in young lambs may be the result of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in immunological signalling that may also be associated with the production of IgA, the effects of which can be reduced through the provision of adequate MP. These studies provide evidence that the immune response to gastrointestinal parasites is nutritionally costly to the animal and have implications for application of manipulations that are intended to promote the development of a strong immune reaction in high producing animals.en
dc.format.extent1-180en
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherLincoln University
dc.subjectsheepen
dc.subjectnematodaen
dc.subjectimmunityen
dc.subjectintakeen
dc.subjectutilisation of energyen
dc.subjectTeladorsagia circumcinctaen
dc.subjectTrichostrongylus colubriformisen
dc.subjectImmunoglobulin Aen
dc.subjectimmuno-suppressionen
dc.titleEstimates of the nutritional cost of the development of immunity to gastrointestinal parasites in sheepen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300400 Animal Production::300405 Animal production (pests and pathogens)
lu.thesis.supervisorSykes, Andrew R.en
lu.thesis.supervisorStankiewicz, Miroslawen
lu.contributor.unitLincoln University
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Agricultural Sciences
dc.subject.anzsrc070205 Animal Protection (Pests and Pathogens)en
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences/AGSC
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/QE18
pubs.publication-statusUnpublisheden
pubs.publisher-urlhttp://hdl.handle.net/10182/11en
dc.publisher.placeCanterburyen
lu.identifier.orcid0000-0002-1479-3297


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