|dc.description.abstract||Vietnam is categorized as one of the very few countries in the world most heavily affected by climate change. Particularly, the country’s agriculture, on which nearly two-thirds of the population depend, has experienced severe impacts of climate change. Many studies have investigated climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in the agricultural sector in Vietnam. However, very few studies focus on North Vietnam where climate change is increasingly affecting farmers’ livelihood. In addition, the gender dimension, which is a substantial element of climate change vulnerability and adaptation, has not been investigated and analyzed in current climate change studies of Vietnam, in general, and North Vietnam, in particular. This study investigates climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the agricultural sector and analyzes climate change vulnerability and adaptation from the gender perspective. Focusing on North Vietnam, the objectives of this study are to examine farmers’ perceptions of climate change impacts, assess the vulnerability and resilience of agriculture to climate change, investigate the livelihood vulnerability of farmers to climate change, explore the factors affecting farmers’ choices of adaptation to climate change, and investigate the livelihood vulnerability and adaptation to climate change from a gender perspective.
This study uses both secondary and primary data. Secondary data are from various government sources regarding agricultural development, climate change impacts and the statistics on climate variability and natural hazards in the study site. Primary data were gathered through a survey questionnaire administered by personal interviews with 534 farmers from April to May 2018. In addition, in-depth interviews were held with 13 informants who are officers of relevant functional agencies at provincial and district levels and community leaders. Different methods were applied to analyze the collected information. Descriptive statistics are used to investigate farmers’ perceptions of climate change impacts. Vulnerability and resilience indicator of the agricultural sector is aggregated from a set of variables under the components of sensitivity, exposure and adaptation capacity. A livelihood vulnerability index is used to evaluate the livelihood vulnerability of farmers to climate variability and natural disasters. Multivariate probit regression is applied to investigate the factors affecting farmers’ choices of adaptation to climate change. Livelihood vulnerability indices are compared between male and female-headed households. Descriptive statistics are synthesized to investigate climate change adaptation from the gender perspective.
The results show that most farmers in the study site have noticed the impacts of climate change. Natural hazards and climate variability have negatively affected their agricultural production, which include: reduced productivity, crop loss, increased numbers of insects and diseases in plants, decreased income, a shortage of freshwater and damaged infrastructure. The aggregated indicator of vulnerability and resilience reveals that agriculture is vulnerable to climate change because of high exposure to increasing temperatures, the high sensitivity of food security and low economic capacity. The farmers’ livelihood vulnerability findings indicate that the livelihood strategies, health, and food are more susceptible to natural disasters and climate variability than social networks, water, housing, land tenure and assets with the socio-demographic profile least vulnerable.
The studied farmers have applied different methods to adapt to climate change. The selection of seedlings resistant to climate change is the most common method, followed by changing farming techniques, investment in irrigation, adjusting the cultivation time and application of traditional experience. The results show that gender, education, farming experience, agricultural land, farmers' perceptions of the changes in temperature and precipitation, climate information, agricultural training, membership in the farmers’ union, income source and credit access are significant in farmers’ choices of different adaptation strategies to climate change.
For climate change vulnerability and adaptation from the gender perspective, the results show that although female-headed households are more vulnerable to climate variability and natural disasters than male-headed households, the variation is negligible. Given the same exposure to natural disasters and climate variability, female-headed households are more sensitive and less adaptive to climate change than male-headed households. Female and male farmers use different methods to adapt to climate change. Females have critically contributed to the family workforce and climate change adaptation via their main responsibilities of caregiving and household chores as well as food and water reserves. However, female farmers seem to have less access to agricultural training and formal credit sources to adapt to climate change.
The study’s findings enrich the literature on the vulnerability and resilience of the agricultural sector to climate change in Vietnam, in general, and in North Vietnam, in particular. In addition, the study investigates the livelihood vulnerability of farmers at the local level for the specific interventions that assist farmers build their capacity to respond to climate change impacts. Based on the study’s findings, specific policy implications are suggested for climate change adaptation. Finally, from the gender analysis of climate change vulnerability and adaptation, gender-based recommendations are proposed to reduce vulnerability and increase the capacity to adapt to climate change.||en