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dc.contributor.authorReiser, Axelen
dc.date.accessioned2009-10-30T02:00:41Z
dc.date.issued2002en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1266
dc.description.abstractSkiing and snowboarding are popular recreation activities in New Zealand, as well as constituting important components of the winter tourism product. The 2001 snow season witnessed record visitor numbers. Skier days have increased by more than 10% compared with the previous year to 1.254 million. The traditionally “nature related” activity of skiing, however has increasingly often been discussed in the light of excessive resource consumption and pollution of alpine environments. Since no research on resource efficient management of ski fields has been undertaken in New Zealand, this study examined environmental awareness and actions of ski field managers, resource consumption benchmarks (water and energy use, solid waste production), along with resource use related visitor behaviour. Two separate surveys were undertaken to collect relevant information from ski field managers and ski field visitors. While a census of managers across New Zealand was conducted with a mail-back questionnaire (all 27 ski fields were contacted, response rate 44%), the visitor survey was undertaken on-site at six selected ski fields in Canterbury, South Island (total responses: N=259). Analysis of the survey results showed that managers generally acted to protect the environment and resources, however, at different levels for the various indicators measured. Energy use and air pollution were rarely perceived to be environmentally important. Accordingly, only few actions were undertaken to reduce energy use. This is surprising, since energy consumption proved to be a major feature of ski field management. Given the additionally large amounts of water consumed (mainly for snowmaking) and solid waste produced on the mountain, skiing has to be classified as a resource intensive activity. Resource consumption is intensified further, when the impacts associated with tourists being transported to, and from, the mountain are considered. Energy use for “ski trip transport” within New Zealand is two times larger (180 MJ) than energy use associated with ski field infrastructure use (90 MJ) on a per skier day basis. There are several options to improve the environmental performance of ski fields, ranging from modernising equipment, optimising snowmaking and providing efficient transport alternatives. Additionally, increased cooperation between ski field managers, local governments and research institutes could potentially result in environmentally smarter operational practices. Internationally, New Zealand’s ski areas compare relatively well, mainly because of limited on-mountain entertainment and accommodation development, which keeps resource consumption and pollution low compared with European and North American ski fields. However, this research also indicated that New Zealand’s ski field visitors increasingly demand facilities and services similar to those overseas, which in turn may result in larger environmental impacts. New Zealand is generally believed to be a green and nature-related destination and its ski areas still blend well into the natural environment. Hence, there is some potential for the New Zealand ski industry to develop a unique product in such a way that it is both, sustainable and distinguishable from other international markets.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjectsnow sporten
dc.subjectresource consumptionen
dc.subjectresource efficiencyen
dc.subjectdownhill skiingen
dc.subjectsnowboardingen
dc.subjectbenchmarkingen
dc.subjectenvironmental awarenessen
dc.subjectNew Zealanden
dc.titleResource efficiency of the ski industry in New Zealanden
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelMastersen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Managementen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::350000 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services::350500 Tourismen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300800 Environmental Science::300804 Environmental impact assessmenten
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Environment, Society and Designen
lu.contributor.unit/LU/Faculty of Environment, Society and Design/SSPRTen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Environment, Society and Design
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Faculty of Environment, Society and Design/SSPRT
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden


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