Nitrosospira cluster 8a plays a predominant role in the nitrification process of a subtropical Ultisol under long-term inorganic and organic fertilization
Long-term effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on nitrification activity (NA) and the abundances and community structures of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated in an acidic Ultisol. Seven treatments applied annually for 27 years comprised no fertilization (control), inorganic NPK fertilizer (N), inorganic NPK fertilizer plus lime (CaCO₃3) (NL), inorganic NPK fertilizer plus peanut straw (NPS), inorganic NPK fertilizer plus rice straw (NRS), inorganic NPK fertilizer plus radish (NR), and inorganic NPK fertilizer plus pig manure (NPM). In nonfertilized soil, the abundance of AOA was 1 order of magnitude higher than that of AOB. Fertilization reduced the abundance of AOA but increased that of AOB, especially in the NL treatment. The AOA communities in the control and the N treatments were dominated by the Nitrososphaera and B1 clades but shifted to clade A in the NL and NPM treatments. Nitrosospira cluster 8a was found to be the most dominant AOB in all treatments. NA was primarily regulated by soil properties, especially soil pH, and the interaction with AOB abundance explained up to 73% of the variance in NA. When NL soils with neutral pH were excluded from the analysis, AOB abundance, especially the relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 8a, was positively associated with NA. In contrast, there was no association between AOA abundance and NA. Overall, our data suggest that Nitrosospira cluster 8a of AOB played an important role in the nitrification process in acidic soil following longterm inorganic and organic fertilization.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordsnitrification; AOA; AOB; Nitrosospira; long-term fertilization; Microbiology; Animals; Swine; Nitrosomonadaceae; Nitrogen; Ammonia; Bacterial Proteins; Manure; Soil; Fertilizers; Soil Microbiology; Biodiversity; Phylogeny; Oxidation-Reduction
Fields of Research079902 Fertilisers and Agrochemicals (incl. Application); 0703 Crop and Pasture Production; 070303 Crop and Pasture Biochemistry and Physiology; 0503 Soil Sciences
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