Impact of long-term phosphorus fertilizer inputs on bacterial phoD gene community in a maize field, Northeast China
Chen, Xiaodong; Jiang, Nan; Condron, Leo M.; Dunfield, K. E.; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Jingkuan; Chen, Lijun
The bacterial phoD gene encodes alkaline phosphomonoesterase, an enzyme which plays an important role in the release of plant-available inorganic phosphorus (P) from organic P in soil. However, the relationships between phoD gene community, alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity, and P availability in soil are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity, phoD gene abundance, and community structure are influenced by plant-available P using soils (0–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm) from a long-term field trial in which a continuous maize (Zea mays L.) crop had received different levels of P fertilizer inputs (30, 60 kg P ha⁻¹ year⁻¹) for 28 years. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing were used to analyze phoD gene abundance and community composition. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase enzyme activity was negatively correlated with soil available P, which was reflected in corresponding data for phoD gene abundance. On the other hand, positive correlations were determined between phoD gene α-diversity and available P, while shifts in phoD gene community structure were related to changes in soil pH and P availability. The relative abundance of Pseudomonas was negatively correlated with P availability and positively correlated with alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity, suggesting that Pseudomonas may play an important role in soil organic P mineralization. The findings of this study demonstrated that changes of soil P availability as a result of long-term P fertilizer inputs significantly affected alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity by regulating phoD gene abundance, diversity, as well as altering the phoD gene community composition.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordsalkaline phosphomonoesterase activity; soil phosphorus gradient; phoD gene abundance and community structure; high-throughput sequencing; P availability; Environmental Sciences; Bacteria; Zea mays; Phosphorus; Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; Fertilizers; Soil Microbiology; Genes, Bacterial; China; Microbiota
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