Effect of temperature on texture and sensory properties of butter : A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Food Innovation at Lincoln University
Abstract withheld for embargo reason
Keywordsbutter; temperature; texture; instrumental; sensory; melting behaviour; solid fat content; fatty acid; polymorphism; Food Science
Fields of Research0908 Food Sciences; 170112 Sensory Processes, Perception and Performance; 090805 Food Processing; 090802 Food Engineering; 090801 Food Chemistry and Molecular Gastronomy (excl. Wine)
Access RightsRestricted item - embargoed until 01 March 2023
Attribution 4.0 International
CitationAbstract Texture and sensory studies are important to understand the functionality and improve the quality of butter. Seven commercial butter samples were studied, using traditional and novel parameters. Both instrumental penetration test and sensory analysis methods were valid to study the butter texture. The melting rate was based on the changes in hardness over temperature, where limited literature presents. Contradictory results for sample US1 (unsalted butter sample 1) were identified between instrumental and oral melting rates, requiring further investigation. Temperature and sample type had significant effects on all the instrumental textural parameters, while there were insignificant effects on some sensory attributes. The increase in temperature made the samples soft, spreadable, less adhesive and less cohesive. At the highest temperature, 25°C, all the samples were similar in all instrumental parameters and some sensory attributes. At lower temperatures, US1 was significantly harder and less spreadable. Sample SS (spreadable butter) was the softest and most spreadable, which may be due to the temperature-cycle tempering process on winter butter or anhydrous milk fat (AMF) fractionation. The culturing of cream may contribute to the soft texture of CS (Lightly salted cultured butter). The characteristic buttery flavour was stable in the samples against temperature changes, while highly volatile diacetyl was not detected, or confused with the samples' un-freshness. Creaminess was valid to evaluate the combined flavour and texture properties, which was strongly correlated with buttery flavour, softness and oral melting rate. Solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fatty acid profile (FA) may require further study to confirm the results and to address the problems in the significant differences of US1 in hardness, spreadability, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and melting rate. In further sensory analysis, diacetyl content may be studied, without confusion with tangy flavour, and saltiness may also be evaluated for unsalted samples, to investigate the salt effects.
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