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dc.contributor.authorSanoamuang, Niwat
dc.date.accessioned2010-01-20T02:07:10Z
dc.date.available2010-01-20T02:07:10Z
dc.date.issued1992
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1362
dc.description.abstractIsolates of Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey obtained from stone fruit orchards in Hawkes Bay, North Island and from Californian fruit exported to New Zealand, were tested for resistance to methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC). Resistant isolates from the North Island had EC₅₀ values of >30,000, and most isolates from the imported fruit had of values approximately 1.5 mg a.i./l carbendazim. Sensitive isolates failed to grow on 1 mg a.i./l carbendazim. A detached peach shoot system was used in controlled conditions for estimation of values for incubation period, latent period and rate of spore production on flowers (cv Glohaven). The same variables and the rate of colonisation of host tissue were measured on fruit (cv Fantasia) in controlled conditions. An inoculum density of 1x10⁴ spore/flower or fruit greatly increased fitness in vivo compared to an inoculum density of 1x10² spore/flower (fruit). Isolates varied considerably, but there was no consistent relationship between the degrees of resistance and fitness. This was in contrast to earlier studies with dicarboximide resistant strains of M. fructicola. The survival in the field of 10 isolates resistant or sensitive to MBC or dicarboximide fungicides on twig cankers and mummified fruit was compared. The ability to produce conidia on twig cankers inoculated in late spring 1989 was maintained by all sensitive and MBC resistant isolates for at least 1 year. The production of conidia on mummified fruit inoculated in February 1990 decreased after 2-3 months in the field but some conidia were still produced on all fruit in the following spring. Dicarboximide resistant isolates produced less conidia than either the MBC resistant and the sensitive isolates. The pathogenicity and fitness of all isolates were similar to the original values after survival for 1 year. A technique was developed to produce apothecia reliably from inoculated peach (cv Black Boy) and nectarine (cv Fantasia) fruit in controlled conditions in the laboratory. The fruit were inoculated with resistant or sensitive isolates, or combinations, and were incubated for 8 weeks at 25°C (±1°C) with 12 hours photoperiod of fluorescent light (Sylvania 2x65 W, daylight) to produce mummified fruit. The fruit were then buried in moist autoclaved peat moss for 10 weeks at 25°C (±1°C) in the dark to form stromata. These fruit were then hydrated with running tap-water (total hardness (CaCO₃) = 47 g/m³ and conductivity at 20°C = 12.7 mS/m) for 72 hours. The hydrated mummified fruit were placed in moist peat moss and were incubated for 13-14 weeks at 8°C (±0.5°C) in the dark. At the end of this period, stipe initials were visible. Differentiation of stipe initials into mature apothecia occurred within 15-20 days after transfer to 12°C (±2 °C) with a 12 hour photoperiod of fluorescent and incandescent light. All isolates produced apothecia when treated in this way. A technique for isolation of ascospore sets in linear arrangement was developed for tetrad analysis of the inheritance of resistance. At least 3 hours of fluorescent and incandescent light at 12°C (±2°C) was essential to allow ascospore ejection from individual asci taken from apothecia previously maintained in a 12 hour photoperiod at 12°C (±1°C). A water film on the surface of water agar was necessary to hold a set of ejected ascospores in linear sequence. Single ascospores were obtained in sequence with the aid of a micromanipulator. Genetic analysis of MBC resistant isolates was carried out on ascospores derived from apothecia produced in the laboratory. Analysis of ascospore sets in linear arrangement and ascospore populations indicated that resistance to >30,000 mg a.i./l carbendazim (high-resistant) is governed by a single major gene and is affected by gene conversion mechanisms. Crossing over was frequent, suggesting that recombination of resistance with other characters, such as pathogenicity and fitness, may occur readily. The segregation ratio (1:1) from most resistant isolates revealed that heterokaryons containing both resistant and sensitive alleles were common in resistant populations and that resistance is dominant. Allozyme analysis of ascospore progeny through electrophoresis revealed a narrow genetic base of M. fructicola in New Zealand. The technique for reliable apothecial production in controlled conditions developed in this study provided an important step for the determination of the biology of M. fructicola strains resistant to MBC fungicides, and the complexity of its life cycle. Genetic heterogeneity in field populations can be conserved in one isolate through heterokaryosis, thus providing for adaptability of the pathogen to the changing environmental conditions. Knowledge on genetic variability, overwintering ability, pathogenicity and fitness factors may be useful for future management strategies of stone fruit brown rot. Special emphasis should be made in particular to prevent primary infection on blossoms, which would delay the establishment of recombinant strains of M. fructicola and the onset of brown rot epidemics.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.rights.urihttps://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/page/rights
dc.subjectMethyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC)en
dc.subjectcarbendazimen
dc.subjectresistanceen
dc.subjectnectarineen
dc.subjectpeachen
dc.subjectstone fruiten
dc.subjectMonilinia fructicolaen
dc.subjectbrown roten
dc.subjectepidemiologyen
dc.subjectvirulenceen
dc.subjecttwig cankersen
dc.subjectmummified fruiten
dc.subjectgeneticen
dc.subjectapotheciaen
dc.subjectascosporesen
dc.subjectmechanisms of resistanceen
dc.subjectinheritanceen
dc.titleEpidemiological aspects of MBC resistance in Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey and mechanisms of resistanceen
dc.typeThesisen
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300300 Horticulture::300303 Plant protection (pests, diseases and weeds)en
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300300 Horticulture::300301 Plant improvement (selection, breeding and genetic engineering)en
lu.thesis.supervisorGaunt, R. E.
lu.thesis.supervisorFautrier, A. G.
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciencesen


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