ItemPlant parasitic nematodes associated with Maize (Zea mays L.) in New Zealand(NZPPS, 2023-08) Nagarathnam, T; Casonato, Seona; Condron, L; Moukarzel, Romy; Kularathna, ManjulaPlant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are a substantial threat to maize yield globally that is often underestimated. The presence and identification of PPN species in New Zealand maize production remain limited. This study aimed to identify the major PPNs, their population abundance, and distribution in New Zealand maize fields. A total of 384 soil samples were collected from 24 sites from the North (NI) and South Island (SI) of New Zealand in the maize for grain-growing regions of Canterbury (SI), Waikato (NI), and Manawatu (NI). Results showed that all samples were positive for at least one PPN genus. The major PPNs morphologically identified were Pratylenchus (91%), Helicotylenchus (38%), Meloidogyne (14%), Tylenchus (14%), Heterodera (8%), Paratylenchus (3%), and Criconemella (1%). Pratylenchus spp. was found to be extensively distributed in all three regions with populations above the economic threshold (1000 nematodes/kg of soil) in 8 of 9 sites in Canterbury (33% of samples) and 5 of 9 sites in Waikato (19%) and 3 of 6 sites Manawatu (19%). The maximum abundance of Pratylenchus spp. (15067 nematodes/kg soil) was detected in a Dorie maize field, Canterbury (SI). Sites of Rakia (2394 Pratylenchus/kg soil), Leeston (2106), and Dorie (1796) in Canterbury (SI), Ohaupo (1800), Tauhei (1000) ) in Waikato (NI) and Marton (2015) in Manawatu (NI) were identified as the “hotspots of Pratylenchus spp.”; where a site having a mean abundance of Pratylenchus/kg of soil above the reported economic threshold. The survey highlights the potential of Pratylenchus spp. to impact maize yield in major maize-growing regions in New Zealand. This study provides valuable insights into PPN communities in New Zealand maize fields and further research/s needs to be continued to develop effective PPN management strategies. ItemManaging extraction of colour, phenolics and aromas in Pinot noir wine production: Alternative use of grape marc(2023) Tian, Bin; Piquot, A; Wimalasiri, PPinot noir is a grape variety that is capable of producing high quality wine, but the fermentation process can be challenging as it has thin skins compared to other red grape varieties, meaning limited colour, tannins and aromas can be extracted from grape skins. It is also difficult to achieve the right balance between extracting colour and tannins from the skins while preserving the delicate aromas and flavours. The aim of this study was to investigate the alternative way of making Pinot noir wine by using grape marc in different form. Pinot noir grapes were hand-picked from Lincoln University vineyard. Destemmed and crushed grapes were pressed to separate juice and grape marc. Juice yield and weight of grape marc were recorded. Part of grape marc was dried in the oven, and then ground into powder using a food blender. Four treatments were carried out in this study: T1, 750 mL of juice with 300 g of fresh grape marc; T2, 750 mL of juice with 126 g of powdered grape marc (equivalent weight of 300 g of fresh marc after being dried and powdered); T3, 750 mL of juice with 63 g of powdered grape marc; and T4, 750 mL of juice with 31.5 g of powdered grape marc. Micro-fermentation in each treatment was carried out in triplicate in 1 L Schott Bottles at 25°C by inoculating the EC1118 yeasts. Wines were bottled at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Results showed significantly higher alcohol content, total phenolics and tannins in Pinot noir wines made using powdered grape marc (T2-4). Total anthocyanins showed significant lower level in Pinot noir wines made using powdered grape marc due to the limitation of available anthocyanins in grape skins, but SO2 resistant pigments showed significant higher level, especially in T2 and T3. This result indicates the importance of ratio between tannins and anthocyanins on the formation of SO2 resistant pigments in red wine. Significantly higher level of caftaric acid observed in T2-4 suggested less oxidation in the resultant wines, which is likely attributed to higher content of tannins. Most of aroma compounds showed significant differences between treatments. In comparing to T1, Pinot noir wines made using powdered grape marc (T2-4) showed significantly lower concentration of aroma compounds associated with vegetative/green, woody, and spicy, but higher concentration of those associated with fruity, floral, chemical, and fatty/oily. This study investigated the alternative way of using grape marc in Pinot noir winemaking, which may provide a useful tool for winemaker to manage the extraction of colour, tannins and aromas from grape skins into wine. This could be also potentially a new way of utilisation of grape marc as winery waste, especially those sourced from premium quality grapes. ItemAdoption and intensity of agricultural mechanization and their impact on non-farm employment of rural women(Elsevier, 2024-01) Ma, Wanglin; Zhou, X; Boansi, D; Horlu, GSA; Owusu, VThis study analyzes the impact of the adoption of agricultural mechanization and its intensity on the non-farm employment of rural women using the 2016 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data. The study captures mechanization adoption as a dichotomous decision and adoption intensity using three types of farming strategies: non-mechanized, semi-mechanized, and fully-mechanized. Non-farm work is categorized based on work types (self-employment or wage employment) and work locations (local or migrated non-farm work). Both inverse probability weighting with regression adjustment (IPWRA) estimator and multivalued treatment effects (MVTE) model are utilized to address selection bias. The IPWRA estimates reveal that mechanization adoption increases the probability of rural women participating in non-farm work in general and wage employment and local and migrated non-farm work in particular. The impact is greater for unmarried women than for their married counterparts. The MVTE estimates show that relative to non-mechanized farming, the adoption of semi-or fully-mechanized farming increases the probability of rural women participating in non-farm work, wage employment, and local and migrated non-farm work, with fully-mechanized farming playing a larger role. Meanwhile, relative to semi-mechanized farming, adopting fully-mechanized farming does not have a significant impact on any type of non-farm work. ItemDoes nutrition knowledge training improve dietary diversity and nutrition intake? Insights from rural China(Wiley, 2023-10-11) Zheng, H; Ma, Wanglin; Guo, YImproving dietary diversity and nutrition intake among rural households is essential to promote sustainable rural development. In this study, we examine whether nutrition knowledge training increases rural households' dietary diversity, nutrition intake, and total calorie intake. We consider three macronutrients (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) and three micronutrients (vitamin C, iron, and zinc) to capture nutrition intake. The doubly robust inverse probability weighted regression adjustment estimator is employed to estimate survey data of 765 rural households collected by the Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China. The results show that nutrition knowledge training enhances household dietary diversity, improves the intake of macronutrients in terms of proteins and fats and micronutrients in terms of zinc, and increases total calorie intake. In addition, the intake of nutrients and calories of males responds to nutrition knowledge training while that of females does not. The dietary diversity of females increases with nutrition knowledge training, whereas that of males is unaffected.