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dc.contributor.authorBalasubramaniam, Rengasamy
dc.date.accessioned2010-03-18T20:47:30Z
dc.date.available2010-03-18T20:47:30Z
dc.date.issued1985
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1514
dc.description.abstractStudies were conducted on three field trials of wheat cv. Kopara to investigate the lack of compensation by later determined components of yield because of early disease constraints. The investigation was based on the hypothesis that early disease reduces root development and thus causes the plants to be water constrained at later growth stages when soil water deficits usually occur. The reduced root development and soil water deficits may reduce the ability of the plant to compensate for reductions in early determined components. The hypothesis was tested by the application of irrigation to alleviate water stress. In a disease free crop, the possible phytotonic effects of the fungicides benomyl and triadimefon on wheat were investigated. These fungicides had no phytotonic effects on shoot, root growth, or yield under the prevailing conditions. The effect of disease on root development was analysed by root length measurements. Disease present in the crop at any stage of growth affected root development. Root development in the upper zones of the soil profile was reduced more by disease compared to those zones below 35 cm. A full disease epidemic reduced root development more than an early or late disease epidemic. The early and late disease epidemics had similar effects on root length. Alleviation of early disease constraints enabled greater development of roots to offset any earlier reductions. Soil water deficits increased root development in the lower zones of the nil disease plants. The presence of adequate soil water from irrigation reduced the requirement for further root growth in all treatments. In the 1981-1982 field trial a full disease epidemic reduced yield by 14% whereas an early disease epidemic reduced yield by 7%. The reduction in yield was attributed to a lower grain number. With irrigation the yield reduction in the full disease plants was 12% whereas in the early disease plants the reduction was only 2.4%. This indicated that plants affected by the early disease epidemic were water constrained. In this study, the results suggested that, for conditions prevailing in Canterbury, the supply of water at later growth stages increased grain weight in plants which were subject to early disease epidemics. This suggests that reduced root development caused by early disease and soil water deficits may prevent compensation by grain weight. Water use was similar in all disease treatments. After irrigation the irrigated plants of all treatments used more water. Disease affected water use in relation to yield production however, and was better expressed by water use efficiency. Water use efficiency was reduced in the full disease plants. A stepwise regression analysis suggested that water use efficiency was affected directly by disease at later growth stages, and indirectly via an effect on total green leaf area at early growth stages. This study partially proves the hypothesis that reductions in root development caused by an early disease epidemic may constrain the plants at later growth stages when water deficits usually occur. It was shown that the reduction in root development caused by disease could be counteracted by irrigation. In this respect, water served as a tool to study the effect of disease constraints on the yield of wheat. A knowledge of cereal crop physiology, root growth and function is used to explain and discuss the observations made in this research programme. The results are discussed in relation to the way in which disease affects yield through its effect on root development. The possible reasons for the continued effects of disease even after the control of disease at later growth stages are discussed. The economic use of fungicides and water in diseased crops are also outlined. Suggestions for future studies on disease-yield loss relationships are provided. The repetition of these experiments in different sites and climatic regions could provide information which may be incorporated in disease-yield loss simulation models. This could then be used to predict root development and water requirements of diseased plants, and provide a basis for economic use of fungicides and water, and for better disease management programmes.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln College, University of Canterburyen
dc.rights.urihttps://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/page/rights
dc.subjectwheaten
dc.subjectfoliar diseaseen
dc.subjectdisease assessmenten
dc.subjectroot developmenten
dc.subjectfungicidesen
dc.subjectphytotonicen
dc.subjectwater useen
dc.subjectwater use efficiencyen
dc.subjectwater deficiten
dc.subjectstripe rusten
dc.subjectspeckled leaf blotchen
dc.subjectyielden
dc.subjectyield componentsen
dc.titleThe effects of foliar diseases and irrigation on root development, yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)en
dc.typeThesisen
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Canterburyen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300200 Crop and Pasture Production::300204 Plant protection (pests, diseases and weeds)en
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270400 Botany::270403 Plant pathologyen
lu.thesis.supervisorGaunt, R. E.
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Agricultural Sciencesen


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