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dc.contributor.authorJenkins, Toni E. T.en
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-13T00:09:57Z
dc.date.issued2005en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1844
dc.description.abstractIntrogression of genes from crops into ruderal populations is a multi-step process requiring sympatry, synchronous flowering, chromosomal compatibility, successful pollination and development of the zygote, germination, establishment and reproduction of hybrid progeny. The goal of this thesis was to generate data on as many steps in this process as possible and integrate them into a predictive statistical model to estimate the likelihood of successful introgression under a range of scenarios. Rape (Brassica napus) and wild turnip (B. rapa var. oleifera) were used as a model system. A homozygous dominant mutation in the rape genome conferring herbicide resistance provided a convenient marker for the study of introgression. Potential differences between wild turnip populations from a wide range of geographic locations in New Zealand were examined. Hand pollination established the genetic compatibility of rape and wild turnip and a high potential for gene introgression from rape to wild turnip. Interspecific hybrids were easily generated using wild turnip as the maternal plant, with some minor differences between wild turnip populations. The frequency of successful hybridisation between the two species was higher on the lower raceme. However, the upper raceme produced more dormant interspecific hybrid seed. Field trials, designed to imitate rare rape crop escapes into the ruderal environment, examined the ability of rare rape plants to pollinate wild turnip plants over four summers. At a ratio of 1 rape plant for every 400 wild turnip plants, the incidence of interspecific hybridisation was consistently low (<0.1 to 2.1 % of total seed on wild turnip plants). There was a significant year effect with the first season producing significantly more seed and a greater frequency of interspecific hybrid progeny than the other years. The frequency of interspecific hybrid progeny increases when the ratio of rape: wild turnip plant numbers increases. The relative importance of anemophily and entomophily in the production of interspecific hybrids was examined. Wild turnip plants produced twice as many seeds with bee pollination relative to wind pollination. However, the frequency of interspecific hybrids under wind pollination was nearly twice that for bee pollination. Light reflectance patterns under UV light revealed a marked difference between wild turnip and rape flowers compared to near identical appearance under visible light. The data indicates that bees are able to distinguish between rape and wild turnip flowers and exhibit floral constancy when foraging among populations with these two species. Hybrid survival in the seed bank, germination and seedling establishment in the field are important components of fitness. Seed banks established in the soil after the field trials described above germinated in subsequent spring seasons. The predominantly brassica weed populations were screened for herbicide resistance and the numbers of interspecific hybrids germinating compared to the original frequency in the field trial results. Frequency of interspecific hybrids was reduced in the populations compared to the original seed deposit. Seed with a known frequency of interspecific hybrid seed was sown in a separate trial, and the frequency of interspecific hybrids compared at 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after sowing. Poor germination resulted limited competition between seedlings, however the frequency of interspecific hybrids declined over time indicating low plant fitness. There were no significant population effects on any parameters tested. Interspecific hybrids grown in a glasshouse were backcrossed to the parental species and selfed within the plant and within populations. Pollen from the interspecific hybrids was found to have markedly reduced fertility. Interspecific hybrid plants had low female fertility, with the majority (88%) of the pollinated flowers aborting the siliques. Of the remaining siliques, most (98%) had only one to three seeds per silique. Inheritance of the herbicide resistance gene was regular in backcrosses but highly skewed following self pollination with an excess of herbicide-sensitive progeny. Production of a stochastic predictive model integrated the information acquired over the practical work phase of this thesis and utilised the capabilities of @risk, a new application of a risk analysis tool. The three outputs examined were the number of flowering plants resulting from backcrosses to rape and wild turnip and self pollination of the interspecific hybrid progeny. Five scenarios were modelled and all demonstrated the high likelihood of introgression failure in this system. In all scenarios, >75% of simulations resulted in no interspecific hybrid progeny surviving to flowering in the third generation. In all scenarios, and for all three outputs, the seed set on the interspecific hybrids of the second generation was the major factor that limited the number interspecific hybrid progeny surviving to flowering in the third generation.en
dc.format.extent1-147en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjectpollinationen
dc.subjectintrogressionen
dc.subjectBrassica napusen
dc.subjectBrassica rapa var. oleiferaen
dc.subjectwild turnipen
dc.subjectrapeen
dc.subjectinterspecific hybridizationen
dc.subjectpredictive statistical modelingen
dc.subjectUV reflectanceen
dc.subjectpollen vectoren
dc.subjectrisk analysis of transgenic plantsen
dc.subjectinterspecific hybrid fitnessen
dc.titleIntrogression of genes from rape to wild turnipen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270200 Geneticsen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270800 Biotechnology::270803 Transgenesisen
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitSoil, Plants and Ecological Sciencesen
lu.contributor.unit/LU/SPES/PLANTen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/SPES
pubs.organisational-group/LU/SPES/PLANT
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
dc.publisher.placeLincoln, Canterburyen


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