AERU Discussion Paper series

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    Proceedings of the International Conference on Invention, Innovation and Commercialisation with special emphasis on Technology Users Innovation (TUI)
    (Lincoln University. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, 2011-06) Fairweather, John R.
    Research work in the AERU has covered the topic of innovation in a number of ways formany years. Recently, we have sharpened our focus on user innovation and reported NewZealand’s first empirical research on this topic in AERU Research Report No. 320. Thisdiscussion paper continues this theme by reporting the papers presented at an internationalconference on user innovation.This discussion paper should appeal to those interested in user innovation. The conferencecovered a wide variety of topics, including theoretical approaches to user innovation,innovation policy and the first-hand experiences of innovators. It also features results from aprogramme of research at Lincoln University on user innovation and draws the results ofthree years of research into a synthesis with policy implications. This discussion paper willtherefore be of particular interest to policymakers wanting to know how best to supportuser innovation in New Zealand. This discussion paper includes the full text of the following papers: Stephen Flowers, User innovation: Theory, Practice, and Policy; Alan Afuah and Marcel Bogers, Why do users innovate? A theory of the locus of innovation; Jim Birkemeier, Full vigour forestry: Sustainable forest management from the forest owner’s point of view; Enrico Tronchin, Disruptive innovation for sustained economic growth: Why New Zealand’s innovation system should be open, distributed and inclusive of innovative users; Bhaskara Rao Suddapalli and Kanimoli Ramaiah, Experience gained from inventing human heart valve prosthesis; MirShahin Seyed Saleh, New cellulosic fibres; Tiffany Rinne, International comparisons of models of innovation models: Whatis to be learned about the New Zealand situation?; Julian Williams, TUI and innovation policies in selected European, Asian and PacificRim countries; G. Daniel Steel, Principles that guide innovation: Predicting the Global InnovationIndex score with dimensions of human values; Keith Alexander, SpringFree Trampoline - and some lessons learned; John Fairweather, Introduction to the New Zealand TUI Research Programme; Ralph Lattimore, Timberworks; Simon Lambert, The socio-technical networks of technology users in New Zealand; Janet Stephenson, Mapping innovators’ networks: Actors and flows in smallinnovation firms; Brett Stanley, The Rollawipa; Tiffany Rinne, Cultural Limits to Innovation in New Zealand; G. Daniel Steel, Comparisons, contrasts, and a case study: Innovation implicationsof New Zealand’s scores in values and personality; Dean Satchell, Novel sawing of eucalypt: a solution leading to a new forestindustry?; John Lay, iAgri; John Fairweather, Tiffany Rinne, Gary Steel, Simon Lambert, Janet Stephenson, Synthesis of New Zealand TUI research and policy implications: Is ittime to support user invention in New Zealand?; Peter Hone, Commercialisation of IP for inventors and SMEs and why so many ideasfail to enter the market; Manthan D. Janodia, N. Udupa, J. Venkata Rao, Virendra S. Ligade, Generating innovations in developing countries: Policy formulation andits implications.
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    An economic survey of New Zealand wheatgrowers : financial analysis, 1982-83
    (Lincoln University. Agricultural and Economics Research Unit., 1984-10) Lough, R. D.; McCartin, P. J.
    This Report is the sixth in an annual series of economic surveys which concentrate on financial aspects of New Zealand wheatgrowing farms. These surveys have been undertaken by the Agricultural Economics Research Unit at Lincoln College on behalf of the Wheat Growers Sub-Section of Federated Farmers of New Zealand Inc. The principal objective of this survey is to establish, from farm accounts and personal interviews, financial data pertaining to wheatgrowing farms in the 1982-83 financial year. Such data will allow a more comprehensive picture of wheatgrowing in New Zealand, in line with that available for other major New Zealand farming industries. The accounts analysis was carried out by Roger Lough, computer programming by Patrick McCartin, and the report compiled by Roger Lough and Patrick McCartin.
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    Productivity and income of New Zealand agriculture 1921-67
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1969) Hussey, D. D.; Philpott, B. P.
    This discussion paper updates the data on income and productivity for the New Zealand agricultural sector for the period 1921-1967 in the AERU research report titled: Productivity and income of New Zealand agriculture, 1921-67.
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    Recent trends in capital formation in New Zealand agriculture 1964-69
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1972) Johnson, R. W. M.; Hadfield, S. M.
    This discussion paper updates the data on gross capital formation in the AERU research report titled: Capital formation in New Zealand agriculture, 1946-67.
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    New Zealand, The Ten, and future market strategies
    (Lincoln College. Agricultural Economics Research Unit., 1972-04) McCarthy, Owen
    Britain, along with Ireland, Denmark and Norway will become a full member or the European Economic Community (EC) in January 1973. Thus the original signatories of the Treaty of Rome of 1957 (France, West Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) which set up the EC will become what is popularly called The Ten. In fact this is a misnomer because a number of countries are associate members of long standing (Greece. Turkey) or entered as a type of associate under the Yaounde Convention (former French colonies in Africa and African nations still members of the British Commonwealth) or are currently negotiating for associate membership (Austria, Sweden, Spain). In passing, it is suggested that it is this unwieldy expansion of the original inward looking Six which offers the best hope for freer world trade to the benefit of New Zealand, among others. The main aims of the 1957 Rome Treaty were to eliminate customs duties and other trade barriers between member states; to establish a common external tariff (CT) and commercial policies towards outsiders; to inaugurate a common agricultural policy (CP) and to encourage the free movement of people among group members. These measures together were to achieve the grand design of improving living standards and encouraging closer political ties. In practice, most progress to date has been made on the customs union or common market. At the end of a 12 year transition period (1957-1969) all trade barriers between the individual countries within the group had been eliminated. Political union is more contentious and little effort is being made in this area at present. The implications of a group of Ten, plus minions are profound. Already the Six alone are the largest trading bloc in the world in terms of both imports and exports. For example, of total world imports of food and agricultural raw materials, the Six account for 25 per cent. The Ten would be even more important traders with a population in Western Europe alone of 255 million compared with Russia 240 million and U.S.A. 201 million. It might be thought that as 10-15 per cent of New Zealand exports go profitably to the Six already, the application of the CT and the CP to Britain should not affect New Zealand unduly. Unfortunately this is not true. Current exports to the Six are mostly wool which enters duty free as an industrial raw material. Our other major products, meat and dairy, will be greatly affected by the existing and proposed CT and CP relations (in spite of temporary concessions for our dairy produce). Briefly the crux of New Zealand's problem revolves around the degree to which Britain will become self sufficient after EC entry by increases in her internal production plus other EC country transfers and the changed patterns of demand EC entry will force on the U.K. consumer. Higher prices to U.K. producers under CP will increase output. However, higher prices will also be paid by U.K. consumers under CP so that existing patterns of demand are likely to change. The question of where New Zealand could, or will be forced to fit into this entirely new set of circumstances, or how she could beset adjust to it is discussed further below.