Waterfront development in Malaysia: do we have sustainable governance?
The waterfront is recognised as the zone of interaction between a city and a river. In Malaysia, waterfront developments were established when the country was first settled, mainly as a transport route and for trading. Waterfronts became more urbanised and commercialised from the early 1990’s onwards. However, due to constraints such as ineffective governance as well as inadequate federal, state and municipal planning guidelines, the waterfronts have problems such as environmental degradation, crime and flooding. Although some waterfront development projects continue to remain profitable, with good public access, many do not. This paper examines the effectiveness of governance for waterfront developments in Malaysia. The data presented in this paper was obtained from in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in waterfront development projects in Malaysia; in particular, from three selected case study areas: Kuching Riverfront, Malacca Waterfront and Glenmarie Cove Riverfront. The interview results show that Malaysia does not have effective governance for waterfront developments for several reasons. A low level of cooperation between stakeholders involved in waterfront development projects was identified as a main contributor to the governance problems. These results will be used to provide information for developing guidelines for best practice for waterfront developments in Malaysia.... [Show full abstract]