Indigenous planning in New Zealand: an analysis of the recent developments and their theoretical context
The article aims to show how indigenous planning in New Zealand has developed over the last two and a half decades – both in relation to the evolution of general statutory planning and to relevant planning theories. Additionally, the article examines the effectiveness of Ngai Tahu’s iwi planning documents.The revoked Runanga Iwi Act 1990, the Resource Management Act 1991, the Waikato-Tainui Raupatu Claims (Waikato River) Settlement Act 2010 and the Marine and Coastal Area (Takutai Moana) Act 2011 each contain provisions for iwi planning. This can be linked to overarching politics of devolution and neoliberalism, as well as to a more collaborative and participatory approach to planning in general. However, some authors criticize iwi-based indigenous planning for its inaptitude to capture diverse Maori realities and identify it as a structuralist and pragmatic concept.Looking at the effects of Ngai Tahu’s iwi planning documents on the South-West Christchurch Area Plan no influence on specific issues can be identified. Based on postmodern and poststructuralist planning theory, suggested improvements to Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu Freshwater Policy are to address more explicitly how it shall be implemented, to use a more distinctive indigenous approach, and to pay particular attention to the “contact zone” – that is, the cultural interface.Based on these findings the conclusion is drawn that recent developments in New Zealand show, to a certain degree, attempts at including postmodern approaches in the form of empowerment and participation of indigenous people. However, there are still shortcomings in turning this intention into practice, mainly due to the rational fundamentals of the planning system and to the difficulty of integrating alternative concepts of spatial governance.... [Show full abstract]
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