The application of management techniques to water resources development and management
Management techniques cover a range of subjects that represent old wine in a new bag, but wine that has been redistilled by the application of electronics, computers and new thinking on goals to be achieved. Only those techniques have been discussed that have already found application, in 1971, in the work of the United States Bureau of Reclamation or are under consideration for application. (1) Tele-measurement of rainfall and streamflow can be used in remote areas, for economizing on manpower, or for up-to-the-minute information as may be, needed for flood control, for instance. (2) Computer processing of information can be useful for reasons given under (1) and, in addition, may be necessitated for the handling of many data. The computer programme can be geared to provide various analyses and, where applicable, operational instructions. These instructions can be transmitted and be carried out manually or automatically via the computer. (3) Network analysis has been applied to the construction of water works for showing inputs and the timing of activities for reaching given goals. For novel and non-routine activities it is commonly not possible to assess minimum, mean and maximum time requirements for activities in order to arrive at completion of a project by a given date. Such data as to time requirements are needed for formal network analysis. However, for these types of activities, network-type diagrams can still be useful which, like in formal network analysis, show inputs, activities and interrelationships in a time sequence. These diagrams can form the basis for timing analyses when, subsequently, more information on timing becomes available. Several examples of the latter type of presentation are submitted. (4) Long-term streamflow records can be analysed for probability of exceedance of a given flow on the basis of which reservoir operation and water-use plans can be drawn up for expectations of probable minimum and maximum flows and for reasonable (mean) flow. This is illustrated for the Granby reservoir in Colorado. (5) For important projects the analysis can be extended beyond that discussed under (4) by considering reservoir operation for each flow possibility. This is illustrated for the projected Pa Mong reservoir on the Mekong river on the basis of 40 years of reconstituted flow. (6) Studies of the optimization of water resources projects, for minimum cost or maximum benefits, have recently been started, commonly involving the use of dynamic programming, For simple farm problems to which linear relationships apply, linear programming can be used. An example has been given of the graphical solution of such a problem. (7) Physical simulation modelling has been widely used in the past. Lately, mathematical simulation modelling has been attempted without recourse to physical models. In spite of results from the latter technique, Current aquifer management in Israel remains based on field measurements of the water levels in aquifers in response to withdrawals and recharge. (8) An annex is attached listing computer programmes available in the Bureau of Reclamation that have a bearing on operation and maintenance of water resources projects. Other programmes on other aspects of water resources project development and management are available.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordsmanagement techniques; water resource development; water resource management; network analysis; reservoir operation; simulation modelling; systems optimization; irrigation systems
Fields of Research090509 Water Resources Engineering; 070105 Agricultural Systems Analysis and Modelling; 099901 Agricultural Engineering; 079901 Agricultural Hydrology (Drainage, Flooding, Irrigation, Quality, etc.)
Copyright © Lincoln College. New Zealand Agricultural Engineering Institute.