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dc.contributor.authorClough, Timothy J.en
dc.contributor.authorCondron, Leo M.en
dc.contributor.authorKammann, C.en
dc.contributor.authorMüller, C.en
dc.date.accessioned2014-10-15T22:34:56Z
dc.date.available2013-04-16en
dc.date.issued2013-06en
dc.identifier.citationClough, T., Condron, L., Kammann, C., and Müller, C. (2013). A review of biochar and soil nitrogen dynamics. Agronomy, 3, 275-293. doi:10.3390/agronomy3020275en
dc.identifier.issn2073-4395en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/6378
dc.description.abstractInterest in biochar stems from its potential agronomic benefits and carbon sequestration ability. Biochar application alters soil nitrogen (N) dynamics. This review establishes emerging trends and gaps in biochar-N research. Biochar adsorption of NO₃⁻, up to 0.6 mg g⁻¹ biochar, occurs at pyrolysis temperatures >600 °C with amounts adsorbed dependent on feedstock and NO₃⁻ concentration. Biochar NH₄⁺ adsorption depends on feedstock, but no pyrolysis temperature trend is apparent. Long-term practical effectiveness of inorganic-N adsorption, as a NO₃⁻ leaching mitigation option, requires further study. Biochar adsorption of ammonia (NH₃) decreases NH₃ and NO₃⁻ losses during composting and after manure applications, and offers a mechanism for developing slow release fertilisers. Reductions in NH₃ loss vary with N source and biochar characteristics. Manure derived biochars have a role as N fertilizers. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures, during biochar manufacture from manures and biosolids, results in biochars with decreasing hydrolysable organic N and increasing aromatic and heterocyclic structures. The short- and long-term implications of biochar on N immobilisation and mineralization are specific to individual soil-biochar combinations and further systematic studies are required to predict agronomic and N cycling responses. Most nitrous oxide (N₂O) studies measuring nitrous oxide (N₂O) were short-term in nature and found emission reductions, but long-term studies are lacking, as is mechanistic understanding of reductions. Stable N isotopes have a role in elucidating biochar-N-soil dynamics. There remains a dearth of information regarding effects of biochar and soil biota on N cycling. Biochar has potential within agroecosystems to be an N input, and a mitigation agent for environmentally detrimental N losses. Future research needs to systematically understand biochar-N interactions over the long term.en
dc.format.extent275-293en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPIen
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - MDPI - https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy3020275 - http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/3/2/275en
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy3020275en
dc.rights© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectbiocharen
dc.subjectimmobilizationen
dc.subjectmineralizationen
dc.subjectnitrate leachingen
dc.subjectnitrogenen
dc.subjectnitrous oxideen
dc.subjectammonia volatilisationen
dc.titleA review of biochar and soil nitrogen dynamicsen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitFaculty of Agriculture and Life Sciencesen
lu.contributor.unitDepartment of Soil and Physical Sciencesen
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/agronomy3020275en
dc.subject.anzsrc0502 Environmental Science and Managementen
dc.subject.anzsrc0703 Crop and Pasture Productionen
dc.relation.isPartOfAgronomyen
pubs.issue2en
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Agriculture and Life Sciences/SOILS
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/QE18
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
pubs.publisher-urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/3/2/275en
pubs.volume3en
dc.publisher.placeSwitzerlanden
dc.rights.licenceAttributionen
lu.identifier.orcid0000-0002-5978-5274
lu.identifier.orcid0000-0002-3082-994X


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