Municipal composts reduce the transfer of Cd from soil to vegetables
Mamun, Shamim Al; Chanson, G.; Muliadi; Benyas, E.; Aktar, M.; Lehto, Niklas; McDowell, Richard; Cavanagh, J.; Kellermann, L.; Clucas, Lynne M.; Robinson, Brett
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential trace element that accumulates in agricultural soils through the application of Cd-rich phosphate fertiliser. Vegetables can accumulate Cd to concentrations that sometimes exceed food safety standards. We investigated the potential of low-cost soil amendments to reduce Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). Batch sorption experiments revealed the relative sorption of Cd by biosolids, charcoal, lignite, sawdust, two types of compost, bentonite and zeolite. Lignite and compost had the greatest ability to sorb Cd and were subsequently selected for pot trials, which elucidated their effect on Cd uptake by onions, spinach and lettuce in two market garden soils with native Cd concentrations of 1.45 mg/kg and 0.47 mg/kg. The addition of 2.5% (dry w/w) municipal compost reduced the Cd concentration in onions, spinach and lettuce by up to 60% in both soils. The addition of lignite gave variable results, which depended on the soil type and rate of addition. This Cd immobilisation was offset by soil acidification caused by the lignite. The results indicate that municipal compost is a low-cost soil conditioner that is effective in reducing plant Cd uptake.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordsbiowastes; lignite; soil amendments; heavy metals; trace elements; Cadmium; Cd uptake; Environmental Sciences; Lettuce; Spinacia oleracea; Onions; Vegetables; Phosphates; Soil; Fertilizers; Soil Pollutants; Coal; Adsorption; Agriculture; Wood
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