Seed development of arrowleaf, balansa, gland and Persian clover
The development process from floral bud formation to seed maturity of four top flowering annual clovers was quantified from a field experiment across 10 sowing dates at Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand. For each species, a numeric reproductive scale was created as a field guide to document morphological changes as the bud progresses through reproductive development. The duration from bud visible to open flower was 341 °C days for ‘Cefalu’ arrowleaf, 215 °C days for ‘Bolta’ balansa, 196 °C days for ‘Prima’ gland and 186 °C days for ‘Mihi’ Persian clover. The inflorescence then required a further 274-689 °C days, 185 °C days , 256 °C days and 425 °C days for each respective species to reach physiological maturity. This was indicated when 50% of seeds had turned red/brown for ‘Cefalu’ arrowleaf, 100% pods turned yellow for ‘Bolta’ balansa, 100% of seeds were yellow and hard for ‘Prima’ gland, and pods turned brown with the first sign of colour change in seeds for ‘Mihi’ Persian clover. These results can be used to facilitate on farm decision making in relation to grazing management or seed set for subsequent regeneration.... [Show full abstract]
Keywordsfloral development chart; harvest maturity; peak flowering; pollination; seed filling; thermal time; Trifolium vesiculosum; Trifolium michelianum; Trifolium glanduliferum; Trifolium resupinatum
Fields of Research0703 Crop and Pasture Production; 070303 Crop and Pasture Biochemistry and Physiology; 0701 Agriculture, Land and Farm Management
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