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dc.contributor.authorRostas, Michaelen
dc.contributor.authorMaag, D.en
dc.contributor.authorIkegami, Makihikoen
dc.contributor.authorInbar, M.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-18T03:35:38Z
dc.date.issued2013-09-11en
dc.date.submitted2013-09-09en
dc.identifier.citationRostás, M., Maag, D., Ikegami, M., & Inbar, M. (2013). Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13, 193-204. doi 10.1186/1471-2148-13-193en
dc.identifier.issn1471-2148en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/7246
dc.description.abstractBackground: Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results: Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions: Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies.en
dc.format.extent193-204en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - BioMed Central - https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-193 - http://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-193en
dc.relation.urihttps://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-193en
dc.rights© 2013 Rostás et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectCapra hircusen
dc.subjectenemy hypothesisen
dc.subjectextended phenotypeen
dc.subjectherbivoryen
dc.subjectintraguild predationen
dc.subjectplant defenceen
dc.subjecttanninsen
dc.subjectterpenesen
dc.subjectvolatile organic compoundsen
dc.subjectEvolutionary Biologyen
dc.subject.meshAnimalsen
dc.subject.meshGoatsen
dc.subject.meshAphidsen
dc.subject.meshPistaciaen
dc.subject.meshPlant Leavesen
dc.titleGall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammalen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection Research Centreen
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1471-2148-13-193en
dc.subject.anzsrc0607 Plant Biologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc060705 Plant Physiologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc0603 Evolutionary Biologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc0604 Geneticsen
dc.relation.isPartOfBMC Evolutionary Biologyen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/BPRC
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/QE18
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
pubs.publisher-urlhttp://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-13-193en
pubs.volume13en
dc.rights.licenceAttributionen
dc.rights.licenceAttributionen
lu.identifier.orcid0000-0001-9722-6513


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