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dc.contributor.authorRobinson, Katherine A.en
dc.date.accessioned2009-02-11T19:50:06Z
dc.date.issued2009en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/823
dc.description.abstractArthropod species that have the potential to damage crops are food resources for communities of predators and parasitoids. From an agronomic perspective these species are pests and biocontrol agents respectively, and the relationships between them can be important determinants of crop yield and quality. The impact of biocontrol agents on pest populations may depend on the availability of other food resources in the agroecosystem. A scarcity of such resources may limit biological control and altering agroecosystem management to alleviate this limitation could contribute to pest management. This is a tactic of ‘conservation biological control’ and includes the provision of flowers for species that consume prey as larvae but require floral resources in their adult stage. The use of flowers for pest management requires an understanding of the interactions between the flowers, pests, biocontrol agents and non-target species. Without this, attempts to enhance biological control might be ineffective or detrimental. This thesis develops our understanding in two areas which have received relatively little attention: the role of flowers in biological control by true omnivores, and the implications of flower use by fourth-trophic-level life-history omnivores. The species studied were the lacewing Micromus tasmaniae and its parasitoid Anacharis zealandica. Buckwheat flowers Fagopyrum esculentum provided floral resources and aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum served as prey. Laboratory experiments with M. tasmaniae demonstrated that although prey were required for reproduction, providing flowers increased survival and oviposition when prey abundance was low. Flowers also decreased prey consumption by the adult lacewings. These experiments therefore revealed the potential for flowers to either enhance or disrupt biological control by M. tasmaniae. Adult M. tasmaniae were collected from a crop containing a strip of flowers. Analyses to determine the presence of prey and pollen in their digestive tracts suggested that predation was more frequent than foraging in flowers. It was concluded that the flower strip probably did not affect biological control by lacewings in that field, but flowers could be significant in other situations. The lifetime fecundity of A. zealandica was greatly increased by the presence of flowers in the laboratory. Providing flowers therefore has the potential to increase parasitism of M. tasmaniae and so disrupt biological control. A. zealandica was also studied in a crop containing a flower strip. Rubidium-marking was used to investigate nectar-feeding and dispersal from the flowers. In addition, the parasitoids’ sugar compositions were determined by HPLC and used to infer feeding histories. Although further work is required to develop the use of these techniques in this system, the results suggested that A. zealandica did not exploit the flower strip. The sugar profiles suggested that honeydew had been consumed by many of the parasitoids. A simulation model was developed to explore the dynamics of aphid, lacewing and parasitoid populations with and without flowers. This suggested that if M. tasmaniae and A. zealandica responded to flowers as in the laboratory, flowers would only have a small effect on biological control within a single period of a lucerne cutting cycle. When parasitoids were present, the direct beneficial effect of flowers on the lacewing population was outweighed by increased parasitism, reducing the potential for biological control in future crops. The results presented in this thesis exemplify the complex interactions that may occur as a consequence of providing floral resources in agroecosystems and re-affirm the need for agroecology to inform the development of sustainable pest management techniques.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjectMicromus tasmaniaeen
dc.subjectbrown lacewingen
dc.subjectHemerobiidaeen
dc.subjectAnacharis zealandicaen
dc.subjectparasitoiden
dc.subjectFigitidaeen
dc.subjectFagopyrum esculentumen
dc.subjectbuckwheaten
dc.subjectAcyrthosiphon pisumen
dc.subjectpea aphiden
dc.subjectMedicago sativaen
dc.subjectlucerneen
dc.subjectfloral resourcesen
dc.subjectflowersen
dc.subjectomnivoryen
dc.subjecttrue omnivoreen
dc.subjectlife-history omnivoreen
dc.subjectfourth trophic levelen
dc.subjectconservation biological controlen
dc.subjectpest managementen
dc.titleUse of floral resources by the lacewing Micromus tasmaniae and its parasitoid Anacharis zealandica, and the consequences for biological control by M. tasmaniaeen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::210000 Science-Generalen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciencesen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270700 Ecology and Evolutionen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciences::270700 Ecology and Evolution::270703 Terrestrial ecologyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciences::300200 Crop and Pasture Production::300204 Plant protection (pests, diseases and weeds)en
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection and Ecologyen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/BPEC
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden


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