An EEG investigation of sleep homeostasis in healthy and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep
Perentos, N.; Martins, A. Q.; Cumming, R. J. M.; Mitchell, Nadia L.; Palmer, David N.; Sawiak, S. J.; Morton, A. J.
Sheep have large brains with human-like anatomy, making them a useful species for studying brain function. Sleep homeostasis has not been studied in sheep. Here, we establish correlates of sleep homeostasis in sheep through a sleep deprivation experiment. We then use these correlates to elucidate the nature of sleep deficits in a naturally occurring ovine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL, Batten disease) caused by a mutation in CLN5. In humans, mutations in this gene lead to cortical atrophy and blindness, as well as sleep abnormalities. We recorded electroencephalograms (EEGs) from unaffected and early stage CLN5−/− (homozygous, affected) sheep over 3 consecutive days, the second day being the sleep deprivation day. In unaffected sheep, sleep deprivation led to increased EEG delta (0.5– 4 Hz) power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, increased time spent in the NREM sleep state, and increased NREM sleep bout length. CLN5−/− sheep showed comparable increases in time spent in NREM sleep and NREM sleep bout duration, verifying the presence of increased sleep pressure in both groups. Importantly, CLN5−/− sheep did not show the increase in NREM sleep delta power seen in unaffected sheep. This divergent delta power response is consistent with the known cortical degeneration in CLN5−/− sheep. We conclude that, whereas sleep homeostasis is present in CLN5−/− sheep, underlying CLN5−/− disease processes prevent its full expression, even at early stages. Such deficits may contribute to early abnormalities seen in sheep and patients and warrant further study.... [Show full abstract]