Environmental growth conditions of Trichoderma spp. affects indole acetic acid derivatives, volatile organic compounds, and plant growth promotion
Nieto-Jacobo, Maria; Steyaert, Johanna M.; Salazar-Badillo, F. B.; Vi Nguyen, D.; Rostás, M.; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, J. T.; Jimenez-Bremont, J. F.; Ohkura, M.; Stewart, A.; Mendoza-Mendoza, A.
Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. “atroviride B” LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions.... [Show full abstract]
KeywordsTrichoderma; auxins; 3-indole-acetic acid; plant growth promotion; volatile organic compounds; 6-PP
Fields of Research0607 Plant Biology; 05 Environmental Sciences; 050303 Soil Biology; 060505 Mycology
© 2017 Nieto-Jacobo, Steyaert, Salazar-Badillo, Nguyen, Rostás, Braithwaite, De Souza, Jimenez-Bremont, Ohkura, Stewart and Mendoza-Mendoza. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.