Positional distribution of fatty acids in processed Chinook salmon roe lipids determined by ¹³C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Journal Article
Recently, there has been great interest in the lipidomic of marine lipids and their potential health benefits. Processing of seafood products can potentially modify the characteristics and composition of lipids. The present study investigated the effect of processing methods (salting and fermentation) on the positional distribution of fatty acids of Chinook salmon roe using ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The NMR analysis provided information on the carbonyl atom, double bond/olefinic, glycerol backbone, aliphatic group, and chain ending methyl group regions. The obtained data showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main fatty acid esterified at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerides (TAGs), while other fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), were randomly distributed or preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. Fermentation of salmon roe was found to enrich the level of DHA at the sn-2 position of the TAG. The processing of roe by both salt drying and fermentation did not appear to affect the proportion of EPA at the sn-2 position. This present study demonstrated that fish roe processing can enhance the proportion of DHA at the sn-2 position and potentially improve its bioavailability.