|dc.description.abstract||The influence of rootstock and canopy density on grape berry composition was investigated over the summer of 2003-2004 on a commercial vineyard at Waipara, North Canterbury. This experiment was designed to investigate the influence of rootstock and canopy density on the acid composition, potassium (K) content and final pH of harvested fruit (Pinot Noir AM 10/5 Lincoln Selection). The trial block consisted of eight rootstocks laid out to an 8 x 8 latin square, each plot consisting of five vines of the same rootstock. Two canopy treatments were overlaid the block (down whole rows, assigned randomly, four rows to each treatment); one treatment allowed to grow naturally, in the other treatment the canopy was thinned removing double burst shoots and laterals. The bunch numbers were adjusted in the Unthinned canopy treatment (UCT) to match the Thinned canopy treatment (TCT).
Information was gathered to assess: the canopy size and density (Pinot Quadrat Leaf Layer and Percent Gaps and canopy porosity), the plant yield (and berry size, berries per cluster, cluster weight, clusters per plant), plant K levels at flowering and veraison (from petioles and leaf blades) and berry composition at harvest (soluble solids (as brix), K, titratable acidity (TA), tartaric acid concentration, malic acid concentration and pH). The trial area was non-irrigated on clay loam soils and viticultural management was to best commercial practice.
It was found that although rootstock influenced the levels of K in the plant and in the juice at harvest, the level of K in the juice did not influence pH in this experiment (range of rootstock juice K: 808 ppm to 928 ppm, l.s.d. = 75 ppm). The level of tartaric acid concentration in the juice was found to be the dominant influence on the level of pH in this experiment (rootstock pH range: 3.21 to 3.39, l.s.d. = 0.05). The juice concentration of tartaric acid was influenced by both rootstock (rootstock range 4.0 to 4.7 g/L, l.s.d = 0.4) and canopy density (UCT = 4.1, TCT = 4.7, l.s.d. = 0.4), decreased shading positively increasing the level of tartaric acid. The malic acid concentration in the juice was positively influenced by increasing canopy density (UCT = 4.7 g/L, TCT = 4.1 g/L, l.s.d = 0.4) and this played a minor role in the determination of pH in this experiment; an influence of rootstock on the level of malic acid concentration was found. The malic acid concentration strongly influenced the determination of TA (UCT = 11.0 g/L, TCT = 10.2 g/L, l.s.d = 0.5); tartaric acid concentration had a minor influence on the recorded TA.
Attempts to characterise the influence of rootstock on malic acid, tartaric acid and pH were inconclusive. Rootstock was found to influence the canopy variables measured in this experiment and the recorded average plant yield. Crosses of Vitis rupestris were found to exhibit the most canopy vigour and those derived from Vitis berlandieri and Vitis riparia the least. The Canopy treatment did not show an influence over yield but the rootstock was found to influence plant yield, through the numbers of berries set in a cluster and the final harvest cluster weight. The influence of rootstock on pH may be described by the influence it exerts on canopy growth and yield but this was thought unlikely. Further research is required to describe the nature of the rootstock influence on K, malic acid, tartaric acid and pH.||en