Recent Submissions

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    Leaching losses of nitrate from undisturbed soil lysimeters under continuous and intermittent rainfall : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science (Honours) at Lincoln College
    (Lincoln College, University of Canterbury, 1988) Deane, T. H.
    The amounts of NO₃⁻₋N leached from small undisturbed soil lysimeters (180mm diameter x 200-210mm deep) were compared under continuous and intermittent simulated rainfall conditions. Examination of breakthrough curves from both treatments indicated extensive preferential flow of solute had occurred through macropores such as earthworm burrows, plant root channels, natural structural cracks and large inter-aggregate spaces. Trends indicated that leaching of nitrate was initially less efficient under intermittent versus continuous rainfall. It was suggested that this was due to solute diffusion into intra-aggregate pores during the interval between intermittent rainfall events slowing down leaching losses. This mechanism also delayed the peak leachate NO₃⁻₋N concentrations by approximately 0 . 1 pore volume under intermittent versus continuous rainfall. Leaching losses under continuous and intermittent rain-fall of up to respectively were calculated to occur from NO₃⁻₋N fertiliser applied to the lysimeters offer 100 mm rainfall. It was suggested that fertiliser N losses would be less when several small rainfall or irrigation events immediately followed fertiliser application rather than one large rainfall/irrigation event.
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    Effects on green manure crops on nitrogen loss and availability: A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science with Honours At Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2002) Fowler, C. J. E.
    Nitrogen (N) is the nutrient required in the largest quantity by arable crops. However, it is also a difficult nutrient to manage due to its susceptibility to loss through leaching, particularly in winter. In certified organic cropping systems, the supply of N to crops is further restrained by restrictions on fertiliser inputs. These factors have lead to a renewed interest in the use of green manure crops for improving N-use efficiency in conventional and organic arable cropping systems. This study involved a comparison between three green manure crops (oats (Avena saliva), lupins (Lupinus auguslifolius), oats-lupins biculture) and a fallow for their ability to conserve N over winter and influence N availability to a subsequent crop. Intact soil monolith lysimeters (19cm diameter x 30cm deep) were taken from an established organic farm and the experiment included four replicates of each treatment. Nitrate leaching losses from the various treatments were measured over the green manure growth period (March - October). All the green manure crops reduced the amount of N that was leached over winter. Cumulative N leaching loss was similar for the three green manure treatments (4.1 - 4.9 kg N ha⁻¹), and these were significantly lower than N loss from the fallow treatment (8.4 kg N ha⁻¹ ). Nitrogen uptake in green manure herbage was 100, 162, and 126 kg N ha⁻¹ for the oats, lupins, and oats-lupins, respectively, with corresponding herbage C:N ratios of 18, 13, and 16. Annual ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum) was sown three weeks after green manure incorporation to assess their impact on N availability. Dry matter yield and N uptake by ryegrass was significantly greater for the oats lupins (689 kg DM ha⁻¹ , 22 kg N ha⁻¹) than the fallow treatment (297 kg DM ha⁻¹ , 9 .4 kg N ha⁻¹ ). The findings of this study demonstrated that a green manure is an effective means of reducing N leaching loss over winter and improving N supply to a subsequent crop.
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    Using accounting information systems to benefit micro businesses : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2024) Benbow, Pamela
    Ninety percent of all businesses in New Zealand are micro businesses, defined as having zero to five employees. This sector is critical to New Zealand’s economy. Micro businesses create opportunities for new entrepreneurial talents, provide employment and offer consumers choice and variety including specialist goods and services. Central to all businesses is the need for information, managed by the accounting information system (AIS). The AIS supports decision-making, achieving business objectives and managing limited resources. Prior studies and government reports call for further research of micro businesses so that this sector of the economy can be strengthened. This research addresses this call by exploring the benefits of using AIS in micro businesses using multiple methods, including desk-based research, semi-structured interviews with professional accountants, a survey of micro business and finally semi-structured interviews of micro business owners. Findings show that a variety of tools are used, ranging from manual record keeping, to spreadsheets, to computerised AIS, and including a mixture of these tools. The majority of microbusinesses use computerised AIS tools, of which two software providers dominate. Some accounting firms specialise their practice either through industry or choice of AIS. Other accountants accommodate any AIS approach, focusing on the individual micro business needs. AIS use by micro businesses is primarily focused on monitoring cash flow, sales and income activities and compliance reporting (GST and income tax). The greatest utilisation of computerised AIS and add-on tools are observed with these activities. Micro businesses could utilise other features more, especially reporting, as a basis for decision-making. The decision to adopt computerised AIS includes factors affecting the individual business owner (generation, individual knowledge and skill and personal attitude to technology), internal business factors (financial costs, time costs and the business purpose and future) and external business factors (supply chain, regulatory bodies and supporting services). The benefits of using computerised AIS include connectivity, autofill, automated calculations and drilldown. Connectivity through cloud technology provides accessibility to a single version of the data between users regardless of location. Autofill populates data entry screens with information previously captured, reducing the need for typing. Automated calculations automatically completes basic arithmetic in the creation of invoices, supplier bills and reports. Finally, drilldown enables direct access to supporting detail for information provided on screen. These benefits may not be available in older versions of computerised AIS, or versions that only include a subset of the features. This research increases the understanding of factors impacting micro businesses in their decision to implement computerised AIS, and the benefits from doing so. The findings support accountants, government agencies and AIS software developers to devise strategies to support micro businesses. Findings from this research are applicable to micro businesses throughout New Zealand and more globally and will benefit other small businesses outside of the micro definition, both locally and globally.
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    Amounts, forms and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil under conventional and organic cropping: A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours at Lincoln University
    (Lincoln University, 2002) Horrocks, A. J.
    Organic farming is increasingly being promoted as a sustainable alternative to conventional farming. There is, however, a need for a greater understanding of how the organic system can function sustainably within a New Zealand agricultural setting. This study investigated the amounts, forms and availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in soil under conventional and organic cropping. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 70 cm from the conventionally managed Lincoln Mixed Cropping Farm (LCF) and the organically managed Biological Husbandry Unit (BHU) in Canterbury. These sites were chosen for comparison because they had the same soil type (Wakanui-fine sandy loam) and provided an opportunity to examine the effect of 25 years of contrasting management on nutrient amounts and availability. Analyses included organic carbon (C), total N and total P measurements. A 7-day anaerobic incubation was used to determine potentially mineralisable nitrogen (PMN), while isotopic exchange kinetics (IEK) was used to determine soil inorganic P availability. It was found that past management systems had not substantially affected organic C, total N and P levels of the topsoil (0-15 cm) but had significantly affected amounts of C and nutrients in the subsoil (15- 70 cm). Amounts of N, organic C and organic P were gre~ter at the BHU, which was attributed to the utilisation of deep rooting species. Inorganic P was greater in the LCF subsoil which may have been partially due to preferential leaching given the comparative lack of deep rooting species and the apparent high P fixing capacity (determined by IEK) of the subsoil. Greater pools of solution and readily available inorganic P in the BHU 0-7 .5 cm of soil indicated that the different cropping management systems had modified soil properties. The greater amounts detected at the BHU may reflect tillage regimes, intensity of production and the absence of animal grazing in the system. This study demonstrates the important role the subsoil plays regarding the nutrient fertility of cropping systems.
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    A re-evaluation of soil variability and soil fertility in relation to experimental forest plots at Bridgehill Flat, Craigieburn Research Area, Canterbury, New Zealand : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the postgraduate diploma of Applied Science at Lincoln University Canterbury, New Zealand
    (Lincoln University, 1994) Hassall, Leanne Jane
    In 1979 Forest Research Institute (FRI) established a trial on high country forest and pastoral landuse at Flock Hill Station, in Canterbury. The soils of the trial site on a terrace, fan and hill slopes adjacent to Cave Stream, were surveyed in 1978, and in 1979 forests were planted on Craigieburn and Cass (Typic Allophanic Brown) and Castlehill (composite - Acidic Sandy Brown) soils. The area was stratified on the basis of the soil map and uneroded and eroded sites within delineations were sampled separately for soil fertility assessment in 1982 and 1984. Following the 1982 survey, the area was oversown with legumes and topdressed (300 kg ha⁻¹ superphosphate; 0.2 kg ha⁻¹ sodium molybdate). The current study (1994) includes a reassessment of soil fertility, improved definition of soil mapping units, and the analysis of soils not sampled at the time of the original survey. A Landform units map, a geomorphic surfaces map and soil map for the Bridgehill Block are all recorded. In twelve years the soil fertility under the trees is different than under adjacent grassland. In many plots available phosphorus (Bray P) levels have shown a sharper decline under grassland compared with adjacent forest, while the pH has decreased more in the soils under forest compared to those under grass.