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ItemLinking Spanish wine farmers to international markets: Is direct export better than indirect export in improving farm performance?(Elsevier on behalf of the Economic Society of Australia, Queensland, 2024-03)Selecting an appropriate export channel is one of farmers’ most important strategic decisions as it determines farm performance. Although direct and indirect exports are two important channels linking farmers to international markets, little is known about whether direct export is better than indirect export in improving farm performance. This study addresses this research gap by analyzing the impact of export channel choice on wine export farm performance, utilizing data collected from 479 wine-exporting farmers from Spain. An inverse probability-weighted regression adjustment estimator addresses the selection bias issue of export channel choice. The results show that the wine export price received by the direct exporters is significantly lower than that received by the indirect exports. Using domestic intermediaries for exportation (i.e. indirect export) can reduce information asymmetry and transaction costs, which enable indirect wine exporters to sell their products at higher prices. However, there are no significant differences between direct and indirect exporters in export volume, value, diversity, and satisfaction. The findings highlight that direct and indirect exports do not generate differentiated profits, and wine farmers should choose one of them that can facilitate their access to international markets. ItemIndigenous food sources as vectors of Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance(Elsevier BV, 2023-10-01)The contamination of surface waters by fecal bacteria, measured by the number of Escherichia coli, is a significant public health issue. When these bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials, infections are more complicated to treat. While water is regularly tested at recreational sites, wild-harvested foods, known as mahinga kai by the indigenous Māori people of Aotearoa New Zealand, are commonly overlooked as a source of exposure to potential pathogens and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We investigate two likely sources of risk from harvesting aquatic wild foods. The first is water contact, and the second is contact with/ingestion of the harvest. We used E. coli as a proxy for microbial water quality at harvesting sites. Two popular mahinga kai species were also harvested and assessed. We found antibiotic-resistant bacteria on watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and cockles (Austrovenus stutchburyi). One-third of E. coli isolates were conjugative donors of at least one resistance phenotype. Tank experiments were used to track the internalization of E. coli by Greenshell/lip mussels (Perna canaliculus). Greenshell mussels kept at environmentally relevant concentrations of E. coli were colonized to levels considered unsafe for human consumption in 24 h. Finally, we measured horizontal gene transfer between bacteria within the shellfish, what we termed ‘intra-shellular’ conjugation. The transmission frequency of plasmid RP4 was significantly higher in mussels than in water alone. Our results indicate that shellfish could promote the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. They highlight the need to limit or reduce human pathogenic bacteria where food is gathered. ItemIncidence and magnitude of head impacts experienced by female adolescent rugby players across a season of rugby participation(The Journal of Sport & Exercise Science (JSES) on behalf of Asia-Pacific Society for Physical Activity (ASPA) and Sport & Exercise Science New Zealand (SESNZ), 2023-11-20)Introduction. There is growing concern regarding the safety of rugby union players and ongoing medical problems following a concussion and/or long term participation in rugby union. However research on females and adolescents is sparse and recent changes to rugby union rules are based off elite or varsity level athletes. Adolescent female rugby players have a different anatomy and game demands, placing them at greater concussion risk compared to male players. Investigation of sex and age-specific impact magnitude and incidence of head impacts is required to help improve the safety of female adolescent rugby players and to increase our understanding of how these impacts affect ongoing brain health. Methods. Across the 2022 rugby season Eighteen U17 female rugby players aged 12-17 years completed pre-season and post-season-assessment including: (i) 3T advanced magnetic resonance imaging, (ii) neurocognitive testing (NIH toolbox), (iii) health history questionaire, (iv) motor control questionnaire. During the season participants wore an instrumented mouthguard (recording linear and angular accelerations above 8g) for all school and club games and contact training sessions which were videoed in order to verify all mouthguard detected impacts. Results. One seasons of female collision magnitude and incidence data will be presented. Average total incidence per team was 23 at training and 75 for games. Average peak linear acceleration (PLA) was 21.1 g at training and 21.6 g at games, the total seasonal average was 21.4 g. The largest impact for the season was 96 g. Conclusions. The study highlights the need for sex and age specific, objective data to measure head impact exposure in rugby union. Monitoring head impact size and seasonal load is important for rugby safety and understanding the impact of concussive and non-concussive impacts in rugby. We provide insight into head load of female adolescent rugby players across a season of club and school rugby game and trainings. ItemIncidence and magnitude of head impacts experienced by male adolescent rugby players: A two-season comparison(The Journal of Sport & Exercise Science (JSES) on behalf of Asia-Pacific Society for Physical Activity (ASPA) and Sport & Exercise Science New Zealand (SESNZ), 2023-11-20)Introduction. In recent years there has been an increase in public and media awareness regarding the safety and brain health of players either after a concussion or after long-term participation in rugby union. Because of the nature of rugby, players are exposed to repeated collisions which may or may not result in a concussion. These impacts involve both linear and rotational acceleration. At present there is sparse research investigating the role of collisions in rugby on the brain health of junior rugby players. Methods. Forty U16 male rugby players aged 14-16 years completed pre-season and post-season assessment which included: (i) advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, (ii) neurocognitive testing, (iii) health history questionnaire, (iv) motor control questionnaire. Participants wore instrumented mouthguards during their club and school season (recording collisions 8g and above) for all games and contact trainings. The collisions were video verified and coded according to relevant descriptors. Results. Magnitude and incidence data for the male cohort, across two seasons, can be presented at this time. Average total incidence per team was 14.19-16.25 impacts at training and 71.95-105.4 impacts at games. Incidence range per player was 12 to 496 impacts experienced per season, with an average of 107.61. Average peak linear acceleration (PLA) was 18.15-19.17 at training and 20.08-20.63 at games. Magnitude range per player was 13.8-28.2 g, with an average of 19.48. Player loading influenced incidence rate and maximum PLA, but not average PLA. Wider study results, expected in early 2024, will incorporate results from neuro-cognitive testing, motor control questionnaires, and MRI scans. Conclusions. The study highlights the need for objective data to measure head impact exposure in rugby union, especially at the junior level. Monitoring head impact loading is crucial for rugby safety and may help to establish a distinction between kinematics of concussive and non-concussive injury. ItemTSTs: Where are we at and where might we go(New Zealand Veterinary Association, 2023-07)Drench failure, or anthelmintic resistance, is not a new phenomenon. Since the introduction of broad-spectrum anthelmintics in the middle of last century resistance has commonly developed. As any new active or combination has become available the threat of resistance has not dissipated and each new class or combination simply serves to buy more time before their eventual failure. During this time practices on-farm and the way we have used anthelmintics has largely remained the same, with a focus on whole flock/mob neo-suppressive treatments. Albert Einstein reportedly once said the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different outcome. Without a step-change in how and when we use anthelmintics, resistance to our current suite of drenches is inevitable. With that in mind, the provision of refugia may not prevent the eventual development of resistance, but it can help slow the failure of our existing anthelmintics. A number of approaches and ways through which this can be achieved exist but fitting them into existing systems in a way that is both practical and reliable invariably requires greater consideration and inputs, whether that be time, labour or investment in technology.
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