Endophytic genera in Californian thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.)

Journal Article
Cirsium arvense is an important weed in temperate areas, causing yield losses in pasture and cropping systems. Endophytes may affect fungal biocontrol agents deployed to control C. arvense. This was the first study sampling leaves, stems, and roots of C. arvense multiple times in one growing season to determine which endophytic genera were associated with this plant species. Eighty-eight endophytic genera were isolated by culture methods and identified with molecular markers. Sixty-five of these have not previously been reported for C. arvense. This study was the first to document many genera belonging to the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, and Diaporthales that have not previously been identified in association with C. arvense. In addition, this study isolated more Leotiomycetes and Helothiales than previous studies on C. arvense endophytes. Information on endophytic genera in C. arvense will aid our understanding of biotic factors influencing fungal biocontrol agents and may improve effectiveness of biocontrol agents.