ItemThe relationship between team structure and technological advancement in Formula One : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Commerce and Management at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Thomas, Anisha AndrewFormula One is renowned for its global reach, technological advancements, and the skill required to compete at the highest level. While the sport has historically been associated with innovation and the evolution of technology, there is a growing concern that Formula One has become more conservative and risk-averse in recent years, with regulations limiting true innovation. Additionally, financial pressures have shifted the focus towards incremental evolution rather than groundbreaking innovations, leading to a lack of diversity in engine manufacturers and a concentration of power among a few dominant teams. This thesis aims to investigate the role of team structure in determining the level of technological innovation or evolution pursued by Formula One teams. It explores the hypothesis that Entrepreneurial teams are more likely to drive Innovation, while corporate teams tend to focus on evolutionary changes within the sport. By analysing secondary data and conducting statistical analysis, the study examines the historical progression of Formula One, ownership structures within the sport, and the evaluation of technological development encompassing both innovation and evolution. The analysis of the data reveals that radical innovations in Formula One were predominantly driven by Entrepreneurial teams in the early years of the sport. However, as corporate participation increased, revolutionary innovation diminished over time. This contradicts the conventional theory that suggests larger firms with greater capital investments are more successful. Corporate interests, risk aversion, cost control, and profitability concerns have led to stringent rules and regulations that restrict teams' ability to innovate. To reclaim its status as the pinnacle of motorsports, Formula One must shift its focus towards nurturing and supporting entrepreneurial organisations that drive innovation. By fostering an environment that empowers these entities, the sport can rejuvenate its reputation as a breeding ground for groundbreaking technological advancements. While this study provides valuable insights into the relationship between team structure and technological development in Formula One, further research using primary data collection methods and updated information is needed to explore additional linkages and relationships. ItemNew Zealand attitudes towards the emerging sport of Esports: Content analysis of New Zealand public discourse on Esports : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Benden, Jenn.Globally, esports is no longer a new activity due to the expansion of esports tournaments, university scholarships, large sponsorships, and well-documented growth in popularity. Despite the global growth, esports and esports research in New Zealand is in a preliminary phase, with a national sporting body for esports only being approved in 2016. This research sought to develop an understanding of the prominent conversations, attitudes, and discourse in New Zealand through analysing publicly available articles and documents written in New Zealand and by New Zealand authors. A qualitative content analysis method (Bengtsson, 2016) was chosen, focusing on a sentence-by-sentence coding methodology. It was found that esports is yet to be accepted in public discourse, with articles repeatedly using justification language to defend esports against stereotypes and criticisms. Sport was conversely not criticised for these same objections, despite many of the criticisms being challenges sport also faces. Sport continues to be upheld in public discourse in New Zealand as an inherent ‘good’ regardless of potential negative outcomes for participants, while esports is not provided the same benefit of social acceptance, confirming again the Great Sport Myth (Coakley, 2015). Beyond comparisons to sport, it was found that esports faces similar criticisms to videogames, adding to the difficulty of esports finding full acceptance socially and politically. While the data gathering method was set to rule out irrelevant articles, it was not possible to fully separate videogame content from esports content. Future research could compare the videogame and esports discourses to determine whether the themes are the same, similar, or different. Other future research opportunities found include determining a clear picture of the demographics of New Zealand esports players and fans, as well as investigating the current and potential future locations of esports facilities in New Zealand. ItemModification of soil biogeochemistry by plants during a restoration trajectory (Punakaiki, New Zealand) : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of International Nature Conservation at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Wang, YuxuanThe Punakaiki Coastal Restoration Project (PCRP) was carried out to restore native vegetation in a farmed pasture, aiming to establish a functioning sandplain. More than 30 species and >150,000 individual plants were transplanted from containers-grown specimens across the 70 ha site on a pragmatic and adhoc basis over several years. A restoration trajectory is also an ecological succession with temporal changes in species composition of plant communities. The present study focuses soil biogeochemistry in areas of the site where different plant species have been planted. Plants and soils were sampled from different locations at PCRP, and chemical properties of these samples were analysed using ICP-OES to determine macronutrient and trace elements. Olsen-P, mineral nitrogen, soil pH, and organic matter were also analysed. Olsen- P was determined using colorimetrically, while mineral nitrogen was determined using a triple-channel CHN analyser. The results showed that soil chemistry varied beneath different plant species, indicating that plants have different potentials to influence soil nutrient concentrations. Nutrient concentrations also varied with soil depth. Soil concentrations of NO3-N, Fe, Mn, Mo, Na, P, and S differed significantly under different species. Patterns of similarity and differences within the data were investigated. The study also found that a major factor causing the element difference under different plants was site variation. Soil samples were taken from the transects with different soil ages. Younger soil was more likely to contain more abundant trace and major elements and more biological activity, and soil pH was also impacted by soil age. Nutrient concentrations in soil and foliage were often either positively or negatively correlated. Whist primary minerals usually determine major nutrients and trace elements in the soil, differences can be due to passive or active absorptive channels in the soil and by physiological differences between plants. Rhizosphere processes can also alter soil chemistry. Coprosma robusta showed a passive response to salinity, suggesting it might be unable to regulate Na uptake, with a positive correlation between soil Na and foliage Na. By contrast, Coprosma propinqua appeared to actively control uptake of Al, Mg, Na, and Ni; it was the only species that showed a potential mechanism for exclusion of some elements, with a negative correlation of these elements between foliage and soil. The effect of rhizosphere processes on soil organic matter depends on plant species and soil properties, and microorganism activity and community play fundamental roles in driving organic carbon accumulation and decomposition. This study found that Olsen-P and soil organic matter tended to be higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil, although the difference was not statistically significant. This may have been due to microbial activity differing between rhizospheric and bulk soil, probably associated with root morphology and exudates. An incubation experiment of litter of different plant species mixed with soil showed that plant litter could significantly change soil chemistry, and this varied between plant species. Plant litter reduced soil acidity and increased soil Olsen-P, but this differed in magnitude between plant species. Soil concentrations of NO3-N and NH4-N decreased after incubation; it is argued this might result from microorganism consumption of soil organic carbon. This research also aimed to evaluate finding of an earlier study on the role of seabird guano on soil nutrient concentrations and the accumulation of nutrients in New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax). The present study indicated that there was no significant difference in soil P levels under flax compared to other plants, contradicting the earlier findings of Zhong (2016). It was suggested that the variation in P levels were more likely to be due to soil age and location differences. Furthermore, P. tenax was found to have a significantly higher concentration of sodium than other plants, suggesting its ability to absorb substantial amounts of sodium from the soil. The findings also raise the question of whether P. tenax captures sodium in cuticular wax from marine spray due to its morphological features, which could be explored in further research. Overall, this study has shown that soil and plant nutrients differ between plant species and that plants have significant effects on soil chemistry. Plant and soil nutrients interact with litter quality and other environmental factors. It is concluded that understanding soil biogeochemistry has a role to play in ecological restoration, although this is currently poorly understood. ItemCause for concern: Evaluating shade for UVR protection in Christchurch playgrounds : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Caves, LuciaObjectives: Shade cover in parks, particularly park playgrounds, are valuable landscape settings for reducing over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR is emitted from the sun, with over-exposure linked long-term to skin cancer among other health issues. With the highest exposure time in early life stages, children and young adults are among some more at-risk populations. Parks must protect from direct UVR. Furthermore, the distribution and quality of parks tend to be distributed in favour of wealthier neighbourhoods across a parks network. This study aimed to determine whether shade was adequately and equitably provided in parks located within the highest and lowest socioeconomic (SES) neighbourhoods of Christchurch, New Zealand using accessibility as a factor informing park selection. Methods: Between April and December 2022, 63 Parks in Christchurch were audited using a mixed method of desktop modelling and site visits to establish the percentage of shade cover and the amount of direct UVR blocked in shaded areas. ArcGIS Pro was used to conduct spatial analysis informing park selection regarding park location, accessibility, and the presence of play equipment to refine the sample size. Desktop analysis using Vectorworks was undertaken to establish the quantity of shade cover in park activity zones, with site visits also conducted for each park to determine the quality of shade cover in park activity zones. Results: Many parks audited had inadequate shade cover to reduce UVR over-exposure risk. Only one park audited had built shade present and there was limited succession planting for shade noted during site visits. There were correlations noted between park size and shade cover, with smaller parks typically having more shade cover in playground areas. Furthermore, there were some significances observed between SES parks, and by park category. Shade quality was found to be related to the size of canopy cover. However, the quality of shade did not vary significantly between parks, or between SES areas. Conclusions: There is limited shade provision in Christchurch parks, that is, primarily, irrespective of SES status. This is cause for concern in relation to skin cancer prevention and ensuring healthy park environments for the public. The provision of shade in park settings should be prioritised and focus on areas within a park that attract the most use, such as playgrounds. Implications: Shade provision needs to be a primary objective for the future design and upgrade of parks and playgrounds in Christchurch. The issue of shade provision also needs to be considered at the planning and policy levels to help implement these improvements. ItemTe Whare Whakakotahi : Nuturing human potential with Aroha: A thesis submitted to partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Resources Studies at Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2002) Bishara, Isaac JamesMāori experience of service delivery, education programme development and resource allocation at Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University vary in degree across a continuum of negative to positive. The social milieu of dynamic tertiary institutional environments, local, national and global forces impacting how those institutions determine their delivery of service and prevalent Aotearoa/New Zealand issues regarding Māori access, retention and academic success in tertiary education shape the relationships and degree of authentic participation in tertiary activity for Māori students. Māori students of Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University have personal and collective choices to make in relation to their academic responsibilities/ response-abilities in context to these forces and impacts. The discourse of Māori access to participatory democracy as it relates to Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University binds takata whenua of this area to that institution. Māori student access to that discursive process remains marginal. Despite that discrepancy precedence for holistic community beyond the rhetoric of discourse abounds as example throughout the coevolutionary history /herstory of the whānau of Te Whare Whakakotahi and Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University over the last decade. The rhetoric of participatory democracy is transcended through the autonomous expression of tikaka Māori manifested in proactive processes of whakawhanaukataka via the conduit of Aroha ki te takata. Though issues of marginalisation, hegemony and dis-empowerment still impact Māori student welfare here at Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University, their commitment to practicing living the living practice of Tikaka Māori specific to their needs serves to inculcate and perpetuate self autonomous values that do not require the justification and affirmation of external forces. The result of this has been the continued support and perpetuation of community wide positivity experienced by people of multiple cultures, throughout the decade, nurturing trans-cultural relationships the implicit outcome of practicing tikaka Māori Illustrating the we-dentity potential of whānau as being able to encompass local, national and international dimensions highlights great opportunity for an integrated united community inclusive of takata whenua, academic staff, and students of diverse origins sharing dynamic personal gifts and abilities that have the potential to affect positive outcomes for authentic community beyond rhetoric. Though the whānau of Te Whare Whakakotahi have been successfully manifesting this potential over the last decade this vision is yet to be realised to its utmost degree by the stakeholders of Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University. Te Awhioraki has shown the way, the challenge remains for Te Whare Wānaka o Aoraki/Lincoln University to participate authentically in the future of Māori student and wider community evolution in the next millennium. How will you respond?