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dc.contributor.authorOrre, G. U. S.en
dc.date.accessioned2010-02-23T01:21:01Z
dc.date.issued2009en
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10182/1429
dc.description.abstractExperiments were conducted to assess whether a concept termed 'attract and reward' (A&R) could enhance conservation biological control (CBC). In A&R, a synthetically-produced herbivore induced plant volatile (HIPV) ('attract') is combined with a floral resource ('reward'). It is anticipated that the two will work synergistically attracting natural enemies into the crop ('attract') and maintaining them within the crop ('reward'). The study system consists of brassica, the most commonly occurring brassica herbivores, their natural enemies and higher order natural enemies. The HIPV deployed is methyl salicylate (MeSA) and the floral resource is buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum. The aim of the first two field experiments, in 2007 and 2008, was to evaluate the effects of MeSA and MeSA combined with buckwheat (A&R) on the abundance of arthropods from three trophic levels. In 2007, a field experiment was conducted using MeSA alone. The mean abundance of the leafmining fly Scaptomyza flava (trophic level 2), the diamondback moth (trophic level 2)(DBM) parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (trophic level 2) and the hoverfly Melangyna novaezealandiae (trophic level 3) was increased in MeSA-treatments by up to 300% and for the brown lacewing parasitoid Anacharis zealandica a maximum mean increase of 600% was recorded. Significantly more females of the D. semiclausum and M. novaezealandiae were attracted to MeSA than males. When A&R was deployed in 2008, were arthropods from the third and fourth trophic levels affected. For none of the species was there a synergistic effect between 'attract' and 'reward' on their abundance. The brown lacewing Micromus tasmaniae (trophic level 3), two parasitoids of DBM and one of cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae (trophic level 2) increased significantly in treatments with buckwheat. The hoverfly Melanostoma fasciatum (trophic level 3) was significantly more abundant in treatments with MeSA, but significantly less abundant in treatments with buckwheat. The effect of MeSA on the fourth trophic level parasitoid Anacharis zealandica (trophic level 4) was inconsistent between years. Here it significantly decreased its abundance, while treatments with buckwheat increased it. Significantly fewer male than female D. semiclausum were attracted to MeSA only treatments. These experiments show that MeSA and buckwheat can have unwanted effects on arthropod abundance which may disrupt CBC. To assess the effect of A&R on CBC a further field experiment evaluating herbivore densities, predation, parasitism and hyper-parasitism rates was conducted. The only effect was significantly higher aphid parasitism in treatments with MeSA. Based on the results from the field experiments it remained unclear whether it was MeSA or a blend of volatiles produced by MeSA-induced host plants that were attractive to the arthropods. An olfactory experiment was conducted to evaluate if the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani can be attracted to two different concentrations of MeSA diluted in Synertrol oil. Significantly more parasitoids were attracted to 2.0% MeSA than to air while the parasitoid did not respond to the 0.5% concentration. These results indicate that A&R has potential as a CBC technique, as long as any unwanted side effects can be managed. Although there were no synergistic effects between 'attract' and 'reward' on the abundance of individual natural enemies, combining MeSA and buckwheat could still be beneficial because the two techniques increase the abundance of different natural enemies.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherLincoln Universityen
dc.subjecttrophic levelsen
dc.subjectherbivore-induced plant volatileen
dc.subjectbuckwheaten
dc.subjectbrassicaen
dc.subjecthabitat manipulationen
dc.subjectmethyl salicylateen
dc.subjectattract and rewarden
dc.subjectconservation biological controlen
dc.title'Attract and reward' : combining a floral resource subsidy with a herbivore-induced plant volatile to enhance conservation biological controlen
dc.typeThesis
thesis.degree.grantorLincoln Universityen
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::270000 Biological Sciencesen
dc.subject.marsdenFields of Research::300000 Agricultural, Veterinary and Environmental Sciencesen
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection Research Centreen
pubs.organisational-group/LU
pubs.organisational-group/LU/BPRC
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden


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