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dc.contributor.authorShields, Morganen
dc.contributor.authorTompkins, Jean-Marieen
dc.contributor.authorSaville, D.en
dc.contributor.authorMeurk, C. D.en
dc.contributor.authorWratten, Stephen D.en
dc.identifier.citationShields, M.W., Tompkins, J-M., Saville, D.J., Meurk, C.D., & Wratten, S. (2016). Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects. PeerJ 4:e2042. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2042en
dc.description.abstractVineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers’ perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis ‘purpurea’ (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context were A. inermis ‘purpurea’ and Lobelia angulata (Lobeliaceae). Soil beneath all plant species had a higher microbial activity than in control plots, with L. dioica being highest in this respect. Survival proportion to the adult stage of the moth pest, E. postvittana, on all plant species was poor (<0.3). When judged by a ranking combining multiple criteria, the most promising plant species were (in decreasing order) G. sessiliflorum, A. inermis ‘purpurea’, H. chathamica, M. axillaris, L. dioica, L. angulata, L. squalida and S. uniflorus. Winegrowers surveyed said that they probably would deploy endemic plants around their vines. This research demonstrates that enhancing plant diversity in vineyards can deliver SPUs, harbour ESPs and therefore deliver ES. The data also shows that growers are willing to follow these protocols, with appropriate advice founded on sound research.en
dc.relationThe original publication is available from - PeerJ - -
dc.rights© 2016 Shields et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0en
dc.subjectservice providing unitsen
dc.subjectecosystem service provideren
dc.subjectecosystem servicesen
dc.subjectendemic plantsen
dc.titlePotential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospectsen
dc.typeJournal Article
lu.contributor.unitLincoln Universityen
lu.contributor.unitBio-Protection Research Centreen
dc.subject.anzsrc070108 Sustainable Agricultural Developmenten
dc.subject.anzsrc050202 Conservation and Biodiversityen
dc.subject.anzsrc0602 Ecologyen
dc.subject.anzsrc070301 Agro-ecosystem Function and Predictionen
dc.subject.anzsrc06 Biological Sciencesen
dc.subject.anzsrc11 Medical and Health Sciencesen
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office
pubs.organisational-group/LU/Research Management Office/QE18
pubs.publication-statusPublished onlineen

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