ItemRichard Serra as landscape architecture: How the sculpture practice of Serra may evolve landscape architecture in Aōtearoa : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023-07) Driscoll-Forbes, AlexanderThis dissertation explores the potential of sculpture and sculptural processes as catalysts for advancing landscape architecture in Aotearoa, with a particular focus on the groundbreaking work of post-modernist American sculptor Richard Serra. While this approach represents a unique angle within contemporary landscape architecture academia, the research grounds itself by examining historical periods where the connection between sculpture and landscape was inseparable. Examples such as Göbekli Tepe in Turkey and Ginkaku-ji in Japan demonstrate how both practices contributed distinct qualities to the surrounding landscape, reflecting the worldviews of their creators. To contextualize the study in a contemporary setting, the research draws on art critic and theorist Rosalind Krauss's seminal essay ‘Sculpture in the Expanded Field’ (1979) to explore the relationship between sculpture and landscape as they evolved beyond modernism. To investigate Serra's practice within the realm of landscape architecture, a multi-modal research approach is adopted. Drawing from established landscape architectural studies, the research employs various tools and methods to address key questions related to Serra's work in the context of landscape architecture. These approaches include biographic research and design drawing to gain an in-depth understanding of Serra's unique practice. Additionally, interpretive and descriptive design critiques explore how Serra's work relates to landscape architecture. First-hand, experientially based design critiques further examine how Serra's practice extends into the landscape architecture domain. Finally, the research considers the potential attributes Serra's practice may bring to landscape architecture in Aotearoa by analysing two NZILA award-winning projects. The outcomes of this research are manifold. First, the study reveals how Serra's practice is influenced by the logic of process and materiality, forming the basis for a process-oriented approach across various mediums. Utilizing Serra's ‘Verblist’ (1967), the research delves into an embodied approach, expanding the notion of 'landscape' and drawing parallels with Tim Ingold's concept of 'taskscape.' This perspective contrasts the ocular-centric view prevalent in landscape architecture and emphasizes the idea that "through living in it, the landscape becomes a part of us, just as we are a part of it" (Ingold, 1993, p. 154). Second, the research demonstrates how Serra's sculptural practice consistently extends into the landscape. Through the analysis and design critique of his works, the study uncovers a practice that explores body, space, and time, engaging viewers through site-specificity, context, and materiality. This emphasis on experiential engagement aligns with phenomenological philosophy and an embodied perspective of landscape. Third, the research establishes that Serra's sculptural ethos and the qualities inherent in his extensive practice—such as body, space, time, process, site-specificity, context, and materiality—have the potential to enrich contemporary landscape architecture practices in Aotearoa. This insight specifically pertains to enhancing the utility and design experience of existing and future landscapes. And finally, the study provides valuable insights into how landscape architecture, influenced by sculpture or other art disciplines, can evolve into a distinct and recognizable form. The interdisciplinary, multi-modal approach employed in this research can serve as a model for future investigations within landscape architectural academia, offering numerous benefits to the field. ItemAn investigation of red deer milk in New Zealand and the implications for future production : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Agricultural Science with Honours at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2022) Dowd, AbbeyThe development of a deer milking industry in New Zealand to produce niche and gourmet products for growing markets has been explored. Studies are lacking on the characteristics of deer milk, including whether there are seasonal changes in its content and how it compares to other animal milks. This study aimed to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profile of red deer milk from hinds grazing lucerne at Aratiatia, Taupō, New Zealand. Milk samples were collected from 43 red deer hinds in March, with a second sample collected from 22 of the original hinds collected in April. These milk samples were analysed using FAME evaluation to determine the FA profiles of individual deer. The samples were compared between mid- and late-lactation, as well as a comparison being made to the FA profiles of dairy cows in New Zealand. Large variations in FA proportions were observed between deer and the proportion of dietarily desirable FAs such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) within the sampled population. This suggests that future selection for deer with desirable fatty acid profiles may be possible, but the practicality of doing this within an evolving industry may be challenging. All of the deer milk FA proportions measured differed significantly between mid- and late-lactation (all P < 0.05). The changes observed tended to be opposite to that typically seen for cows’ milk in New Zealand, and it is suggested that the changes may be due to increased fat content and changes in energy balance towards the end of lactation observed in cervid species. The skewed distribution of essential fatty acids suggested a ‘baseline physiological limit’. This may be due to the lesser extent of domestication of the species and the requirements of the neonate. When the deer FA profiles were compared to cows’ milk, many differences were observed. Deer milk had higher proportions of short-chain fatty acids SCFAs, lower proportions of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to cows’ milk (P < 0.05). Deer milk also had higher proportions of the omega-3 FA group and reduced proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) compared to cows milk (P < 0.05). Using some of these findings to our advantage, deer milk could be marketed as a ‘healthy product’ containing higher levels of omega-3 relative to other animal milks. The differences observed between individual deer over the two stages of lactation may allow for further manipulation of the milk to obtain more desirable FA profiles, but at this stage of development of the industry, more focus may be placed on increasing production and developing markets. Further research is required to confirm some of these findings and could be directed towards further characterisation of deer milk FA profiles, including how feed and the stage of lactation affects the contents of deer milk. ItemEcosanctuaries: How can spatial design in new residential subdivisions enhance the halo effect? : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Metcalf, Erina JoanneEcosanctuaries offer a potential solution for protecting New Zealand’s threatened indigenous wildlife by providing a ‘safe haven’ from predators and a breeding ground. Inevitably, wildlife will spread, or halo, out into the wider landscape requiring us to look beyond the fence. With increased pressure to develop land for residential purposes, this research explores how landscape architects can support ecosanctuaries through the spatial design of new residential subdivisions located within the halo of mainland New Zealand ecosanctuaries. A literature review of overseas conservation-oriented eco-estates in South Africa and conservation subdivisions in the United States unwraps strategies used in each that help inform the spatial design of new subdivisions in the New Zealand context. In addition, case studies of three ring-fenced mainland New Zealand ecosanctuaries and interviews with key employees identify the aspirations behind ecosanctuaries and reveal what needs to be done within the broader landscape to support their success. This research suggests that through the halo effect, ecosanctuaries influence the wider environment. In turn, the spatial design of the wider landscape affects the conservation success of ecosanctuaries. The findings show that beyond the fence, safe, quality and functionally connected habitat is required. By taking an ecosystem approach and ensuring careful spatial design at the ‘landscape’, ‘subdivision’, and ‘backyard/homeowner’ scales, landscape architects can help ensure the long-term success of ecosanctuaries as a conservation model. Based on findings from the research a checklist is provided listing strategies that can be used to inform the spatial design of new residential subdivisions within the halo of New Zealand ecosanctuaries. ItemResponses to drought stress and water logging of 12 diverse pastoral lines in pakihi podzol soil : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2022) Jordan, LucellaNew Zealand's farm systems rely on grazed pasture and fodder crops as the critical feed for livestock. 40% of New Zealand's agricultural land is in pastures which support livestock industries, generating an annual export revenue of NZ$33.8 billion. Due to climate change and tightening environmental regulations such as the 190 N application limit, the status quo perennial ryegrass white clover pasture is becoming less suitable for production in many regions of New Zealand, where water stress and waterlogging stress are increasing in frequency. Diverse pastures are a potential means to improve intra-annual yield stability and increase nitrogen fixation. To determine which species could be suitable for use in a diverse pasture mix for a farm conversion in Golden Bay, a randomised block experiment was set up to test 12 lines of perennial forages. The species included white clover, red clover, Alsike clover, Lotus pedunculatus, perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot, prairie grass, tall fescue and chicory. The species received treatments of waterlogging and drought stress. Drought plants were maintained just above PWP for 42 days, while waterlogging plants were submerged for 15 days, then removed and replaced in 3-day cycles according to stress levels. Under drought stress, all species had significantly reduced total biomass yields, ranging from a 55 % reduction in Alsike clover to a 25 % reduction in Caucasian clover. Under waterlogging, only white clover and red clover showed significant decreases in aboveground dry matter, but most species had at least an 80 % increase in senescence. Other traits measured included plant dry matter, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water potential, leaf senescence, leaf damage, SPAD and soil moisture. It was found that, on average, all other grass species were more tolerant in most traits than perennial ryegrass under drought, and all fescue lines were more tolerant than ryegrass under waterlogging. Compared with white clover, red clover and L. pedunculatus were more tolerant to drought and waterlogging, and Alsike clover performed similarly. The findings suggest suggest merit for examining diverse pastures based on L. pedunculatus, white cover, red clover, Alsike clover, chicory, cocksfoot, Continental and mediterranean fescues in the Golden Bay climate on Pakihi podzol. Among the legumes, L. pedunculatus was the best performing species for environments that experience drought as well as waterlogging. Despite similar biomass to white clover and red clover under drought and higher productivity under waterlogging, lotus had lower levels of senescence under both stresses, retaining greater root biomass under waterlogging. In grasses, hybrid tall fescue had the lowest levels of senescence under both stresses. Among the grass lines there were similar productivity levels and stress-induced changes. However, under both stresses, the fescue lines maintained the lowest levels of senescence among the grasses. Therefore, they could be tested as a suitable base to replace the traditional perennial ryegrass-based pasture used on Pakihi podzol in high rainfall environments. Future work under field conditions is needed to substantiate the findings from this research and progress the understanding of how the species interact with each other in response to the environment and grazing. ItemStreet smart: Do effective design guidelines exist for enhancing the main streets of rural small towns in New Zealand through landscape architecture? : A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Landscape Architecture at Lincoln University(Lincoln University, 2023) Kirkwood, RoryRural small towns are significant contributers economically, culturally, recreationally and socially In New Zealand. They often function as service centres for surrounding agriculture operations, as well as key settlements for tourism, both of which are the counties top two export industries. However in recent years the attraction and liveability of these rural towns has caused many residents to leave and few tourist to visit. A major contributor to the recent decline in these significant towns is the safety, usability and attractiveness of the towns main streets. In New Zealand there are broad landscape and urban design guidelines for metropolitan centres such as Auckland and Christchurch, however there is no governing design document for rural small towns in decline. This dissertation will answer the primary research question of: Do effective design guidelines exist for enhancing the main streets of rural small towns in New Zealand through landscape architecture?. However It was established that there are no design guidelines existing for main street design of rural small towns in New Zealand. Therefore within this dissertation an effort to identify and describe key principles from existing guiding documents and adapt and abstract them to suit rural small towns in the hope of reversing the recent decline has been undertaken.